The History of New York State
Chapter 13, Footnotes 

Editor, Dr. James Sullivan

Online Edition by Holice, Deb & Pam


#1 Colton's Annals of Old Manhattan (1901).

#2 D. F. Leersum's Medical Science in the Netherlands (N. Y., 1815).

#3 Colton's Annals of Old Manhattan, p. 55.

#4 Dr. John Shrady's Two Hundred years of Medicine, a chapter of the Memorial History of the City of New York (N. Y., 1893), IV, 389.

#5 Walsh's History of Medicine in New York, I, 33.

#6 Mumford's Surgical Memoirs, (N. Y., 1908).

#7 Shrady's Two Hundred years of Medicine, in Mem, His. N. Y., IV, 392.

#8 Toner's Annals of Medical Progress.

#9 The New York Weekly Postboy, of January 27, 1752, carried an announcement which probably attracted some New York physicians. It informed them that a course in anatomy was to be given in the city of New Brunswick, N. J. The advertisement reads:

"whereas Anatomy is allowed on all Hands, to be the Foundation both of Physick and Surgery, and consequently without some knowledge of it, no Person can be duly qualified to practice either: This is therefore to inform the Publick: That a course of Osteology and Myology is intended to be begun, some time in February next, in the city of New Brunswick (of which Notice will be given in this Paper, as soon as a Proper number has subscribed towards it). In which course, all the human Bones will be separately examined, and their Connections and Dependencies on each other demonstrated; and all the Muscles of a human Body dissected; the Origin, Insertion, and Use of each, plainly shown, etc. This Course is proposed to be finished in the space of a Month, by

Thomas Wood, Surgeon


"Such gentlemen who are willing to attend this Course are desired to subscribe their Names as soon as possible, with Mr. Richard Ayscough, surgeon, at New York, or said Thomas wood, at New Brunswick, paying at the same time, Three pounds, Proc., and engaging to pay the said Sum of three pounds more, when the Course is half finished.

"If proper encouragement is given in this course, he proposes soon after, to go thro' a Course of Angiology and Neurology; and conclude, with performing all the Operations in Surgery on a Dead Body; the use of which will appear to every person, who considers the Necessity of having (at least) Seen them performed before he presumes to perform them on any living Fellow Creature."

#10 It should be pointed our that Philadelphia was the first to establish regular courses of lectures in medicine, and to organize a complete medical school. Pennsylvania Hospital was founded in 1751, and from about 1766 became the chief centre of clinical lectures. Some time earlier the college of Philadelphia had organized a course of medical lectures, and the trustees had stated the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Physic. The first course of lectures opened in November, 1765, with Drs. Morgan and Shippen as professors. Presumably the course leading to the bachelor's degree was of three years for the first commencement did not take place until June, 1768, at which time the first degrees of Bachelor of Physic were conferred. For the major degree the College required that three years should have elapsed after taking the bachelor's degree. Therefore, it was not until June of 1771 that the first degrees of Doctor of Medicine were conferred upon those of the Class of 1768 who could qualify, in age and thesis. The four recipients in 1771 were Jonathan Elmer, of West jersey; Jonathan Potts, of Pottsgrove; James Tilton, of Kent Country; and Nicholas Way, of Wilmington, New Castle County, Pa.--See Dr. Donehoo's "History of Pennsylvania" (1926), pp. 1649-50.

#11 N. Y. State Medical Journal, Sept., 1917.

#12 An Historical Sketch of the Origin, Progress, and Present State of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the University of the State of New York, a pamphlet from the press of C. S. Winkle, at No. 122 Water Street, New York.

#13 The graduates of the first class were John Wakefield Francis, Theodore Romeyn Beck, Geraldus A. Cooper, Casper Wistar Eddy, Samuel Armstrong Walsh, Thomas Edward Steele, William E. Burrell, and Henry Ravenal, Jr.--See History of College of Physicians and Surgeons, by E. Melvin Williams, a chapter of Walsh's History of Medicine in New York (1917).

#14 James Hardie, in The Description of the City of New York

#15 In July, 1826, the Regents appointed the following, to constitute the faculty of the college of Physicians and Surgeons: John Watts, president; John Augustine Smith, professor of anatomy and physiology; James F. Dana, professor of chemistry; John B. Beck, professor of botany and materia medica; Alexander H. Stevens, professor of the principles and practice of surgery; Edward Delafield, professor of obstetrics and diseases of women and children; Joseph M. Smith, professor of the theory and practice of physic and clinical medicine.

#16 History of New York University Medical College, a chapter of Walsh's History of Medicine in New York (1917).

#17 Original faculty of New York University Medical college: Valentine Mott, professor of surgery; Granville Sharp Pattison, professor anatomy; John Revere, professor of the theory and practice of medicine; Martin Paine, professor of the institutes of medicine and materia medica; Gunning S. Bedford, professor of midwifery; John W. Draper, professor of chemistry, and the diseases of women and children; Theodore Frelinghuysen, chancellor of the University was president of the medical faculty; Professor John W. Draper was secretary; John M. Carnochan was prosector to the professor of surgery; and John H. Whittaker was demonstrator to the professor of anatomy.--Ibid., II, 454.

#18 An address delivered in the eighties, at the opening of the New York Post-Graduate Medical School, of which Dr. St. John Roosa was one of the principal founders.

#19 Walsh's History of Medicine in New York, III, 6558-59.

#20 New Hampshire, Vermont, Mass., Rhode Is., Conn., N. Y.., N. J., Penna., Del., Md., Va., Ga., Miss., Ind., Ill, and Tenn.

#21 The Medical Fraternity, a chapter of the "History of Buffalo, N. Y.," (H. W. Hill, editor), p. 402.

#22 "It is now conceded that the wisdom of the New York State Medical Society displayed in 1882 in its modification of the Code of Ethics of the American Medical Association, and of cooperating with all classes of legal practitioners, secured for us and for most of the states of the Union which followed our example, laws which raised the standard of medical education, gave our students greater facilities, and protected the public by restricting ignorance or quackery."--An address written in 1917 for the historical section of the N. Y. Academy of Medicine, by Dr. Abraham Jacobi.--see Walsh's "History of Medicine in New York," II, 374.

#23 The first Annual Announcement and Circular of Bellevue Hospital Medical college is interesting. It is a sixteen-page pamphlet, on the front outside cover of which is a woodcut of Bellevue Hospital, which is represented as "containing 1,200 beds." On the back outside cover is a like illustration of Blackwell's Island Hospital, "containing 1,500 beds."--See History of Bellevue Hospital Medical College, by E. Melvin Williams, a chapter of Walsh's History of Medicine in New York, Vol. II.

#24 As early as 1878 it was announced that the diploma of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York would be recognized in the British Isles as evidence of three years of medical study.

#25 Boston had a women's college, the New England Female Medical College, as early as 1857, and the Women's Medical College of Philadelphia \ws functioning in 1863, perhaps before.

#26 Evans Clarke, writing in N. Y. Times, May 3, 1925, on City Medical Centre to be World's Largest.


The History of New York State, Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc., 1927

This book is owned by Pam Rietsch and is a part of the Mardos Memorial Library

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