The History of New York State
Editor, Dr. James Sullivan
Online Edition by Holice, Deb & Pam
Hakluyt's translation from Ramusio, in "Diver's Voyages"
Footnote #2: Brodhead's "History of the State of New York," Vol. 1, p. 2, footnote.
Footnote #3: J. H. Innes, who discussed the "Lost Island of Luisa," in a pamphlet published in the "Quarterly Journal" of the New York State Historical Association for April, 1920. See also Henry Isham Hazelton's Brooklyn work. (1925
Footnote #4: Ellis H. Roberts, New York: "the Planting and Growth of the empire State." (1904), Vol 1, p. 2.
Footnote #5: Ramusio, III, 417' Wytfleit, 185. Compare with Le Clerc, "Etablissement de la Foy," I, 6.
Footnote #6: In Francis Parkman's "Pioneers of France in the New world," p. 231, is the following note on the subject:
The Voyage of Verrazzano--the narrative of the voyage of Verrazzano is contained in a letter from him, dated at Dieppe, 8 July, 1524. The original does not exist. The Italian translation was printed by Ramusio in 1556, and there is another translation in the Magliabecchian Library at Florence. This last is accompanied by a letter concerning the voyage from one Fernando Carli, dated at Lyons, 4 August, 1524. Hieronimo da Varrazzano, brother of the navigator, made in 1529, a large map of the world, which is preserved in the College of the propaganda at Rome. The discoveries of Verrazzano are laid down upon it. . . . .A copper globe made by Euphrosynus Ulpius, in 1542, also affirms the discovery of Verrazzano, and give his name to a part of the continent, while other contemporary maps, notably that of Visconte di Maiollo, 1527, also contains traces of his voyage. Ramusio says that he had conversed with many persons who knew Verrazzano, and prints a paper called "Discorso d'un gran Captiano di Mare Francee," in which the voyage of Verrazzano is mentioned by a contemporary navigator of Dieppe.
Various Spanish and Portuguese documents attest the exploits of Verrazzano as a corsair, and a letter of Silveira, Portuguese ambassador to France, shows that in the spring of 1523, he gave a power of attorney to his brother Hieronimo, the maker of the map, and this paper still exists, bearing his autograph. Various other original papers relating to him are extant, one of the most curious being that of the judge at Cadiz, testifying to his capture and his execution at Puerto del Pico. None of the early writers question the reality of the voyage. Among those who affirm it may be mentioned Annibal Caro, 1537; Belleforest, 1570; Herrarra, 1601; Wytfleit, 1603; De Laet, 1603; Lescarbot, 1612.
In 1864 Mr. Buckingham smith questioned the genuineness of the Verrazzano letter in a pamphlet called "An Inquiry into the Authenticy of Documents concerning the discovery of North America, Claimed to Have Been Made by Verrazzano." Mr. J. Carson Brevoort answered him in a book entitled "Verrazzano, the Navigator." Mr. Henry C. Murphy followed with another book, "The Voyage of Verrazzano>' in which he endeavored at great length to prove that the evidence concerning the voyage was fabricated. Mr. Henry Harrisse gave a cautious and qualified support to his views in the "Revue Critique.' Mr. Major answered them in the "London Geographical Magazine," and Mr. De Costa made an elaborate and effective reply in his work called "Verrazzano the Explorer." An Italian writer, Signor Descimoni, has added some cogent facts in support of the authenticity of the documents. A careful examination of these various writings convinces me that the evidence in favor of the voyage of Verrazzano is far stronger than the evidence against it. Abbe Verreau found a contemporary document in the Bibleothesque Nationale, in which it is mentioned that the "Memoirs" of Verrazzano were then in possession of Chatillon (Admiral Coligny). See "Report on Canadian Archives, 1874," p. 190.
Footnote #7: Bryant's History of U. S.," I, 151.
Footnote #8: "Memorial History of N. Y.," I. 17.
Footnote #9: "Brooklyn and Queens County, N. Y." (1925, Hazelton), I, p. 41.
Footnote #10: Peter Martyr: "Decades," 8, c.10
Footnote #11: J. Castell Hopkins: "Canada, the Story of the Dominion," p. 23.
Footnote #12: Ibid., p. 24, also Le Clerc, "Etablissement de la Foy," I, 14.
Footnote #13: Parkman's "Pioneers of France in the New world," p. 231.
Footnote #14: "Memorial History of N. Y." (Wilson), Vol. I, Chap. I.
Footnote #15: Ibid.
Footnote #16: Ellis H. Roberts: "New York: the Planting and Growth of the Empire State." Vol. I, p. 4.
Footnote #17: Roberts: "New York: The Planting and Growth of the Empire State," I,5.
Footnote #18: Brodhead's "History of the State of New York," vol. I, p. 11.
Footnote #19: "Massachusetts Hist. Coll.," XIX, 3; President and Council's "Brief Relation," 1622; Purchas, Iv, 1827, Stracey, 162, 163; Brodhead, I, 13.
Footnote #20: The Spaniards, and also the French, built ships earlier, in Florida, but not, of course, within the original 13 States. The Norsemen rekeeled one of their ships on the New England coast, in 1004.
Footnote #21: His brother, Chief Justice Sir John Popham, of the Plymouth Company, also died; indeed, very soon after the departure of the expedition,. He was the most liberal patron of the American enterprise. In other respects, his record is not especially creditable. At one time he was a highwayman; yet he became Chief Justice of England, being appointed in 1592. In 1603, he accommodated King James by passing sentence of death on Sir Walter Raleigh, though they dared not carry out the sentence at that time.
Footnote #22: the "Planters," too, for the mot part adventurers and down-at-the heel gentlemen anxious to make a fortune, all of them a thoroughly unpracticed lot, had not come to work for a living, but to become rich without working. When, therefore, they found that pearls and nuggets of gold were not to be picked up on the banks of the James; that the inhabitants had little worth stealing; and that the Virginia rivers did not lead to China, they sulked and shirked and became mutinous. The food began to get low; once rats broke into the granary; once fire consumed both houses and food. One year after the founding of Jamestown, only 52 out of 197 persons who had landed there were still alive, and the quarrels of the leaders, the hostility and thievery of the Indians, and the lack of food seemed certain to destroy the colony., the situation seems to have been saved by the one man of sense on the ground, a professional soldier fresh from a romantic life as a free lance in Hungary and a galley slave in Constantinople, whom the capitalists in England has hired to accompany the expedition, Captain John Smith. He hanged the mutinous; pacificed the Indians and bought corn from them' and forced the laggards to work by explaining that the company's rules provided that all should share in common both the food and the work, and that he who would not work should not eat.--Usher's "Rise of the American People," p. 23.
Footnote #23: Address of His Excellency Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux, head of the French Delegation, Champlain Tercentenary, delivered at banquet in New York City, May 1, 1912.--State of New York, "Champlain Tercentenary," Final Report, 1913, p. 48
Footnote #24: Bref Discours des Choses plus Remarquables que Samuel Champlain de Brouage a recognues aux Indes Occisentales," being Chaplain's journal of his American experiences.--Parkman's "Pioneers, p. 243.
Footnote #25: Ibid.
Footnote #26: "Samuel Champlain and the Lake Champlain Tercentenary," an address delivered by the Vermont Historical Society, November 10, 1908, by Senator Henry W. Hill, Secretary of the New York Lake Champlain Tercentenary Commission.
Footnote #27: State of New York: "Champlain Tercentenary: (1909), PP. 359-62.
Footnote #28: Ibid., p 323.
Footnote #29: In September, 1615, he (Champlain) discovered Lake Huron, Le Mer Douce, and on his return joined the Huron tribe in a movement against the Iroquois. He came from the West overland, and crossed lake Ontario at its outlet into the St. Lawrence, and advanced into the land of the Iroquois for 14 leagues along the eastern shore of the lake. He concealed the canoes of his force on the banks near what is now Henderson, Jefferson County. The hostile march extended to the outlet of Oneida Lake, which Champlain describes. Here 11 Iroquois, four of them squaws, were captured by the invaders. The red men were tortured o death by the red allies, but the women were spared, on the appeal of the commander.
On the 10th of October, Champlian and his little army found the foe at a point which, not without controversy, has been fixed south of Oneida Lake, in Fenner, Madison County. The Iroquois occupied a fort which he pictures as of square wooden pickets, and a village "inclosed with strong quadruple palisades of large timber, 30 feet long, interlocked the one with the other, with an interval of not more then half a foot between them. Galleries in the form of parapets were defended with double pieces of timber, proof against our arquesbuses, and on one side they had a pond with a never failing supply of water, from which proceeded a number of gutters, which they had laid along the intermediate space, throwing water without, and rendering it effectual inside for the purpose of extinguishing fire." Champlain tried to set fire to these works, and he built a tower of timber from which "four or five arquebuses might fire over the palisades and galleries." Even from the French narrative it is easy to see that this movement was a failure. Champlain himself :"received two wounds from arrows, one in the leg and the other in the knee, which sorely incommoded him." He expected reinforcements from the Hurons or their allies, but they did not come. Several skirmishes occurred, and safety was secured only by the arquebus. On the 16th of October, and as soon as he could bear his weight on his wounded leg, Champlain retreated "out of this prison, or, to speak more plainly, out of hell." The Iroquois pursued "about the distance of half a league," but he found his way to the lake, where his canoes had been concealed, and they bore him away. The defeat had made it certain that this daring and able French adventurer was not to build walls for New France in the land of the Iroquois--Ellis H. Roberts: "New York: The Planting and Growth of the Empire State," American Commonwealth Series, Vol. I, pp. 15-17.
Footnote #30: Fortunately for England, between the two parties all along the controlling strategic line from this Lake Champlain to the gateway of the West at Fort Duquesne, stretched the barrier of the Long House and its tributary nations. They were always ready, always organized, always watchful. They continually threatened and frequently broke the French military line of communication. Along the whole line they kept the French continually in jeopardy. Before the barrier the French built forts and trained soldiers--behind it the English cleared forest and built homes and cultivated fields and grew to a great multitude, strong in individual freedom, and in the practice of self-government. Again and again, the French hurled their forced against the Long House, but always with little practical advantage. At one time De Tracy, the Viceroy, burned villages and laid waste the land of the Iroquois with 1,200 French soldiers. At another La Barre, the Governor, with 1,800; at another Denonville, with 2,000; at another Frontenac, with 600; at still another, Frontenac, with 1,000. Always, there came also a cloud of Algonquin allies. Always the Iroquois retired, and then returned, rebuilt their villages, replanted their fields, resumed their operations, and in their turn took ample revenge for their injuries.
So, to and fro the war parties went, harrying and burning and killing but always the barrier stood, and always, with its aid, the English colonies labored and fought and grew strong.--"The Iroquois and the Struggle for America." An address by Hon. Elihu Root; see "State of New York: the Champlain Tercentenary Commission: Report, 1909," pp. 207-214.
Footnote #31: Parkman's "Pioneers of France in the New World," pp. 463-64
Footnote #32: "State of New York: Champlain Tercentenary Commission: Reports, 1909." P. 210.
Footnote #33: The development of the Spanish grip on the Netherland can be traced briefly as follows: the Counts of Holland became the Counts of Zeeland also. By marriage this duplex county passed into the family of the Counts of Hainault, in Belgium, and again into that of Bavaria. In the middle of the fifteenth century, Jacqueline of Bavaria, the sole heiress of these fair counties, was in control. Her uncle, the unscrupulous Philip, Duke of Burgundy, who had previously managed to aggrandize himself by the Duchy of Brabant, and the County of Flanders, then came into control. "thus, finally, as the result of honest purchase in some cases or of shameless chicanery in others, and of judicious marriage ins still other instances, Philip the Fair, the father of Charles V, had found himself possessed of the 17 provinces of the Netherlands, comprising all that territory embraced at present in the kingdoms of the Netherlands and Belgium." Then Philip married the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who was sole heiress of the united crowns of Castile and Aragon. Her son, Charles, with all the rich Netherlands and the Duchy of burgundy, or the half of France at his back, became King of Spain, and, at the imperial election of 1519 was made Emperor of Germany.
The Low Countries were his patrimonial territories. He could deal with them as he wished; and, with the hearing of Luther before the Diet of Worms in 1521, began the Reformation and also the reason for the Dutch Revolution, which came to a head in 1566. In 1522m Charles began rigorously to exercise his despotic power over the Netherlands. The Inquisition was put in operation with merciless vigor, to stamp our so-called heresy from the Netherland Provinces, his patrimony. This inhuman campaign reached its climax of inquiry and ferocity in 1550. In 1555 Charles V resolved to abdicate, in favor of Philip II, his son, but the transfer of his patrimony was not finally completed until 1558 .Philip of Spain, the new Sovereign Lord of the Netherlands, reiterated the Placard of 1550, but long before 1566, when the downtrodden people of the Netherlands drafted a "Petition of rights," Philip had left the Netherlands, , devoting himself to Spanish affairs, and committing the government of the exasperated and now turbulent Dutch and Flemings to his sister, Margaret of Parma. The petitions of rights was answered by the entry of the Duke of Alva, at the head of 13,00 Spanish and mercenary troops, sent by Philip. The Dutch then, in 1568, took to arms, under the leadership of William the Silent, beginning what is known as the Eighty years' War, which ended in the wresting of complete independence from Spain.
Footnote #34: Suriano MS, quoted by motley, in his "Rise of the Dutch republic," Chapter I
Footnote #35: Motley's "United Netherlands," I, p. 552
Footnote #36: Brodhead's "History of the State of New York," I, 21.
Footnote #37: Bryant and Gay's "History of the United States," I, 344.
Footnote #38: This private trading association took the name of "The Company of Foreign Countries."--See O'Callaghan's "History of New Netherland," I, 29. in June, 1597.
Footnote #39: . . . most of the expeditions sought the more common route around the Cape of good Hope, and these multiplied so fat and made such marked inroads upon the revenue of Spain, that the Spanish admiral commanding in the Indian seas was charged to make supreme effort to extirpate these pernicious competitors. The order was more easily given than executed' repeated defeats in minor encounters were now followed by the entire discomfiture of a great Spanish armada . . . .As early as 1602, the trade with the East Indies, favored by these naval victories, had reached remarkable proportions. Within seven years 64 vessels had been despatched to Java and the Spice Islands, and brought from Bantam in Java, and from the southern extremity of Sumatra, opposite. . . . . The same article was regularly shipped at Achen, in northern Sumatra, also; at Patani, on the Malay Peninsula; at Johor, in Siam, or Farther India. Cloves were obtained from Amboyna and the other Moluccas; nutmeg from Banda Island; cotton from the east coast of Hindoostan, called then "Koromandel." But, as in the eager pursuit of this trade various companies of merchants were organized in different parts of the United Provinces it soon appeared that they seriously interfered with one another/ the competition between them, both abroad and at home, was simply ruinous. Abroad where the representatives of the several companies sought to make the largest purchases of precious stuffs from the natives, the prices were pushed up to figures, far in advance of those that prevailed at first; at home, where they all sought a market for their goods at the same time, the prices fell correspondingly lower. Thus not enough profit was secured to meet the great cost of the distant and perilous expeditions; or the returns were so meager as to discourage enterprise. There was then no fair field for the successful operation of free trade; for the deadly enemies of the Republic had to be everywhere encountered, and the fitting out of ships for defence along consumed a very great portion of the profits; while concerted action and large fleets were indispensable in overcoming the foe. Hence monopoly was resorted to . . . . all the mercantile associations which were engaged in the East India trade were consolidated into a single national organization, which was chartered under the name of the "General East India Company," in 1602,--Wilson's "History of the City of New York," I, 65.
Footnote #40: Within a few years of incorporation of the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch had established factories on the continent of India, in Ceylon, in Sumatra, on the Persian gulf and on the Red Sea. Besides having obtained exclusive possession of the Moluccas. In 1618, they laid the foundation of the city of Batavia, in Java, to be the seat of supreme government of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, which had formerly been at Amboyna. At about the same time they discovered the coast of Australia. . . . . During the seventeenth century, the Dutch maritime power was the first in the world. The massacre of Amboyna in 1623 led the English East India Company to retire from the Eastern seas to the continent of India, and thus, though indirectly, contributed to the foundation of the British Indian empire. The long naval wars and bloody battles between the English and the Dutch within the narrow seas were not terminated until William of Orange united the two crowns in 1689. In the far East, the Dutch ruled without a rival, and gradually expelled the Portuguese from almost all their territorial possessions. In 1635 they occupied Formosa; in 1651, in 1640, they took Malacca, a blow the Portuguese never recovered; in 1651 they founded a colony at the Cape of good hope, as a half-way station to the East; in 1658 they captured Jaffnapatam, the last stronghold of the Portuguese in Ceylon; in 1664, (the year in which the Dutch surrendered New Netherland and all North American sovereign rights to the British, almost without a blow) the Dutch wrested from the Portuguese all their earlier settlements on the pepper-bearing coast of Malabar. . . .
The knell of Dutch supremacy was sounded by Clive, when in 1758 he attacked the Dutch at Chinsurah, both by land and water, and forced them to an ignominious capitulation., In the Great French War, from 1781 to 1811, England wrested from Holland every one of her colonies, though Java was restored in 1816, and Sumatra in exchange for Malacca in 1824.--"Encyclopedia Britannica," paper on India.
Footnote #41: O'Callaghan's "History of New Netherland," I, 29.
Footnote #42: O'Callaghan's "Documents Relating to the Colonial History of New York," I, 149. See also "Hakluyt," 3, 183, regarding the Dutch at the North.
Footnote #43: Wilson's "Memorial History of City of New York," I, 26, footnote 5.
Footnote #44: In a letter dated June 15, 1627, to Sir Ferdinando Gorges.
Footnote #45: "Mass. Hist. Coll.," 3, 57 (Edition of 1810)
Footnote #46: the map is a large folding map, entitled "Typus Orbus Terrarum," the work ius entitled: "Iohn Huighen van Linschoten, his discourse of Voyages into ye Easte and West Indies. Devided into foure books. Printed by Iohn wolfe, Printer to ye Honrable Cittie of London>" (1698)
Footnote #47: De Costa: "Memorial History of New York," I, 27.
Footnote #48: Fac-simile and translation by Dr. John Gilmary Shea, Fourth Edition, privately printed, New York, 1862, pp 29 and 40.
Footnote #49: Documents Relating to the Colonial History of N. Y., Holl, Doc.." I, 284.
Footnote #50: Wilson's "Memorial History of New York," I, 29. The Linschoten "Discours" first "Book," has been reprinted by the Hakluyt society, 1885.
Footnote #51: "Mem, Hist., N. Y.," I, 30.
Footnote #52: Bancroft, "History of the United States" (Edition 1883) I, 479.
Footnote #53: Parknam, "Pioneers of France in the New World," p. 276
Footnote #54: O'Callaghan's: "History of New Netherland," I, 30.
Footnote #55: Ibid. New York could hardly meet these agricultural requirements.
Footnote #56: Brodhead. "History of the State of New York," I,23.
Footnote #57: Henry (IV, of France) also wished to create an India Company, able to rival those founded in England and Holland. He had no time to realize this idea.--Duruy's "Short History of France," Vol. II, Chap, 48, p. 77.
"Hudson was invited . . . . to continue his efforts under the patronage of the Dutch East India company, and going to Holland to complete arrangements for the expedition, the French ambassador at the Hague, pres. Jeannin, intrigues to obtain his services for a similar expedition under French control. This alarmed the Dutch, and they hastened to fit out an expedition,--"National Cyclopedia of Am. Biog.," Vol. IX, p. 453.
Footnote #58: O’Callaghan’s "History of New Netherland." I, 24.
Footnote #59: Brodhead’s "History of the State of New York," I, 32.
Footnote #60: This singular document had, in the translation used by Hudson, the following title: "A Treatise by IVER BOTY, A Gronlander, translated out of the Norsh Language into High Dutch in the year 1560. And, after, out of High Dutch, into Low Dutch, by WILLIAM BARENTSON, of Amsterdam, who was chiefe Pilot aforesaid. The same Copie in High Dutch is in the hands of IODOCUS HONDIUS, which I have seene. And this was translated out of Low Dutch by Master William Stere, Merchant, in the yeere 1608, for the use of one HENRE HUDSON. WILLIAM BARENTSON’S Booke is in the hands of Master PETER PLANTIUS, who lent the same to me." The treatise contains a variety of quaint sailing directions and information concerning the northern seas, as known to Norse voyagers in the time before Columbus; and it further gives an account, conceded by northern antiquarians to be substantially correct, of the Icelandic colonies in Greenland. It has an interest of its own, apart from its connection with these voyages; for its antiquity is undoubtedly very great, and it throws no little light on the state of Greenland in the days of its settled condition. The Treatise of Boty (or Bardsem, a he is generally called) gs been published , with an introduction and notes, by the Rev. B. F. de Costa, under the title of "Sailing Directions of Henry Hudson," etc.
Footnote #61: Van Meteren’s "Historie der Nederlenden," published in 1614.
Footnote #62: Written by P. van Dam, who served as legal advisor to the Dutch East India Company, 1652-1706.
Footnote #63: Hy. C. Murphy's "Henry Hudson in Holland," p. 25.
Footnote #64: "The only trace of this voyage tht was discovered in the paper os the East India company," says Mr. Brodhead, "consisted of a memorandum of a single ine in one of the ship's books, stating the fact that the jaght Halve Maan of forty lasts burden had been sent toward the north in the year 16080." --O'Callaghan's "New Netherland," I. 33.
Footnote #65: the under-schipper doe not seem to have been Robert Juet, who wrote Hudson's journal home was in Limehouse, England, and Van Meteren expertly states that the mate of the "Half Moon," was a Netherlander.
Footnote#66: Van Mereten's Oorlogen der Nederlanderen," 10, 203-106 (Edition, 1763)
Footnote #67: the third river probably was Rockaway Inlet; the other, no doubt, were the Raritan and the Narrows.
Footnote #68: Brodhead, "History of the Stateof New York," I, 27.
Footnote #69: From Adrian Van der Donck's descriptive work on New Netherland 91656) is taken the following:
"This country was first discovered by the Netherlanders. This is evidenced by the fact that Indians or natives of the land, many of whom are still living, and with whom I have conversed, declare freely that they are old enough to remember distinctly that before the arrival of our Netherland ship, the 'Half Moon,' in the year 1609, they did not know there were any other people in the world then those who were like themselves, much less any people who differed from them so much in race and fashion. . . . They were unclothed and almost naked, especially in summer, while we were all the time clad and covered. When some of them first saw our ship approaching afar off they did not know what to think, but stood in deep and solemn amazement, wondering whether it was a spook or apparition, and whether it came from heaven or hell. Others of them supposed it might be a strange fish or sea monster. They all supposed those on board to be rather devils than human beings. Thus they differed among each other. A strange report soon spread throughout the country about our visit."
Footnote #70: Bryant's "History of U. S.," I, 351.
Footnote #71: The original Journal, preserved by De Laet, graphically describes this visit. As repeated by Brodhead, it is as follows:
"I sailed to the shore,," says Hudson, "in one of their canoes, with an old man who was the chief of a tribe consisting of 40 men and 17 women. These I saw there, in a house well constructed of oak bark, and circular in shape, so that it had the appearance of being built with an arched roof. It contained a great quantity of maize or Indian corn, and beans of the ast year's growth; and there lay near the house, for the purpose of drying, enough to load three ships, besides what was growing in the fields. On our coming into the house, two mats were spread our to sit upon, and some food was immediately served in well-made red wooden bowls. Two men were also despatched at once, with bows and arrows inquest of game, who soon brought in a pair of pigeons, which they had shot. They likewise killed afar dog and skinned it in great haste, with shells which they had got out of the water. They supposed that I would remain with them for the night; but I returned, after a short time, on board the ship. The land is the finest for cultivation that I ever in my life set foot upon, and it also abounds in trees of every description. These natives are a very good people; for when they saw that I would not remain, they supposed that I was afraid of their bows; and , taking their arrows, the broke them in pieces and threw them into the fire." Brodhead "History of the State of New York," I, 30
Hudson's clerk, Juet, in his Journal, states that it was the "master's mate" who went ashore; but De Laet quotes from Hudson's own report, showing that Hudson himself accepted the hospitalities of the chief, and visited him. The place where Hudson landed is given by De Laet as in latitude 42° 18'. This would be about five or six miles above the present city of Hudson, but a careful computation of the distances covered each day, as entered in Juet's book, shows that on September 18 the "Half Moon" was six leagues higher up the river; therefore, the landing probably was in the neighborhood of Schodack and Castleton.
The scene of the festivities, or rather of the reception of Hudson by the Indian chief, was probably as Schodack, for at that point was the so-called castle and council-fire of the Mohicans. One writer, Grace Greylock Niles, in "The Hoosac Valley: its Legends and Its History," refers to the incident as follows: "The King (Aepjin) welcomed Hudson as Onetho returned from St. Ange--the country of angels beyond the seas. He invited Hudson's mate, Robert Juet, to his s Schodack castle and served him the customary feat of honor to friends. The repast consisted of a pair of white doves--peace symbols of the Holy ghost--and roasted wolf or dog--symbolic of the supernatural power of his Mohican heroes in war."
Footnote #72: In the "Collections" of the New York Historical Society for the year 1809 will be found the full report of Juet's "Journal."
Footnotes #73: Juet's "Journal" for the days that the "Half Moon" was in the vicinity of Albany, reads as follows:
"The eighteenth, in the morning was faire weather, and we rode still (at Schodac or Castleton). In the afternoon our Master's Mate went on land with an old Savage, a governor of the Country; who carried him to his house and made him good cheere."
"The nineteenth was faire and hot weather; at the flood being near eleven of the clocke, wee weighed and ran higher up two leagues above the Schoalds, and had not lesse water then five fathoms; wee anchored and rode in eight fathoms. The people of the countrie came flocking aboard and brought us Grapes and Pompions (pumpkins), which we bought for trifles. And many brought us Bevers skinnes and Otters Skinnes, which we bout for beads, knives, and hatchets. So we rode there all night. "the twentieth, in the morning was faire weather. Our Master's Mate with foure men more went up with our Boat to sound the River, and found two leagues above us but two fathoms water, and the cahnnell very narrow; and above that place seven or eight fathomes. Toward night they returned; and we rode still all night.
"The one and Twentieth, was faire weather, and the wind all southerly. We determined yet once more to go farther up onto the river, to trie what depth and breadth it did beare; but much people resorted aboard, so we went not this day. Our Carpenter went on land and made a Fore-yard. And our master and his Mate determined to try some of the chiefe men of the Countrey, whether they had any treachery in them. So they took them down into the cabin, and gave them so much wine and aqua vitae that they were all merrie; and one of them had his wife with him, which sate so modestly, as any of our Countrey women would do in a strange place. In the end one of them was drunke, which had been aboard of our ship all the time that we had beene there; and that was strange to them, for they could not tell how to take it. The canoes and folks went all on shoare; but some of them came againe, and brought stropes of Beades; some had sixe, seven eight, nine, ten; and gave him. So he slept all night quietly.
"The two and twentieth was faire weather; in the morning our Master's Mate and foure more of the companie went up with our Boat to Sound the river higher up. The people of the Countrey came not aboord till noone; but when they came and saw the Savage well, they were glad. So at three of the clocke in the after-noone, they came aboord and brought Tobacco, and more Beades, and gave them to our Master, and made an oration and Shewed him all the countrey, round about. Then they sent one of their companie by themselves; and they caused him to eate with them; and they made him reverence, and departed all save the old man that lay aboord. This night at ten of the clocke, our Boate returned in a showre of raine from sounding of the river; and found it to be an end for shipping to goe in. for they had beene up eight or nine leagues and found but seven foot water and inconstant soundings.
"The three and twentieth, faire weather. At twelve of the clocke wee weighed, and wend down two leagues to a shoald that had two channels, one on one side and another on the other, and had little wind, whereby the tide layed us upon it. So there we sate on the ground the space of an houre till the flood came. Then we had a little gale of wind at the West. So we got our ship into deep water, and rode all night very well.
Footnote #74: De Laet in chapter VII, states that Hudson explored the river "to nearly 43° of north latitude, where it became so narrow and of so little depth that he found it necessary to return." As Albany is in 42° 39', the boat must therefore have gone above that place "eight or nine leagues" further--the distance given in Juet's "Journal."--Brodhead, "History of the State of New York," I, 32.
(De Laet, in stating that Hudson explored the river probably referred to him only in a general sense, as commander of the company of explorers. The "boat' was, it would seem, the ship's boat, not the "Half Moon. " herself.)
Footnote #75: An endeavor has been made to trace to this incident the curse of "fire-water" among the Indians. But this was not the first time that an aborigine tasted alcohol. Cartier, at Quebec, in 1535, regaled the Indian chief, Donnecona, "with bread and wine"; and in all probability this way of ingratiating themselves with the aborigines would be taken by white men, wherever there was pressing need and the opportunity. The Indians of Maine were no stranger to the "good cheer" of the French. Lescarbot, in his "History of New France" (1612), reviewing his experiences at Port Royal during the winter of 1606-07, states that every white man in the colony was served with three pints of wine daily. The 15 gentlemen of the colony, sat at one table, as a brotherhood, or fraternity, "L'Ordre de Bon-Temps." To their table daily came an old Indian chief, Membertou. Each evening a new Grand master would be appointed, and pledged "in a cup of wine." They took pleasure in the redskin's companionship, until he became too importunate. His tribe lived in a palisaded village near Port Royal, and he "proved himself a sturdy beggar," writes Parkman, "pursuing Poutrincourt with daily petitions--now for a bushel of beans, now for a basket of bread, and now for a barrel of wine to regale his greasy crew"--See Lescarbot's "History of new France.' II, 581' and Parkman's "pioneers of France in the New World," p. 207.
Footnote #76: Hudson's three failures served only to increase men's confidence in the existence of a passage by the northwest, for the discovery of which a new and strong joint-stock company was accordingly formed. The command was given to Hudson, who, on April 10, 1610, sailed in the "Discoverie," of 70 tons, the ship that took Waymouth in the same direction in 1602. How he penetrated through the long straits, discovered the great bay that bears his name, at once his monument and his grave, how he and his men wintered in its southern extremity, how in coming north in the next summer, near the east coast, half way back to the strait, he, his son, and seven of his men, in a mutiny, were put into a shallop and cut adrift on Mid-summer Day, 1611, is told in many books. The ringleaders and half the crew perished miserably, but the "Discoverie" was finally brought home to London. No more tidings were received of Hudson, but no one doubted the complete success of his voyage. A grander company was incorporated in 1612, under Prince Henry, t complete the exploration of the passage, and to find the lost discoverer and his companions. Sir Thomas Butler was the commander in 1612, and the "Discoverie" was again the chosen ship. In 1613 the voyage was repeated by Gibbons, and once more in 1614 by Baffin; and the bay was thoroughly explored with the results which have been universally familiar.--"Encyclopedia Britannica."
Footnote #77: On 1841 Brodhead found, in the archives of the Dutch East India Company, at Amsterdam, a "ship-book" in which the career of the "Half Moon" was entered. Besides recording the return of the yacht to Amsterdam on July 15, 1610, the book stated that on the 2d of May, 1611, the "Half Moon" sailed, in company with other ships, to the East Indies, under the command of Laurens Reael; also that on the 6th of March, 1615, she was "wrecked and lost" on the island of Mauritius.--See Brodhead's "History of the State of New York," I, 24 and 43.
Murphy, in his "Henry Hudson in Holland," p. 57, refers to this "ship-book," but according to his reading, the remark "wrecked on the island of Mauritius" appears opposite a companion ship. The entry opposite the "half Moon," he find, is "not heard from."
Footnote #78: Brodhead, "History of the State of New York," I, 45.
Footnote #79: Wilson's "Memorial History of the City of New York," I, 119, quoting Rev. John Hecklewelder, "N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll," Second Series, I, 73,74.
Footnote #80: Wassenaar, "Historische Verhael," etc., VIII, 85.
Footnote #81: It is quite possible that this ship was the same "Little Fox" that sailed with another ship in 1611, to make another attempt to find a northern passage to China for the Eat India Company. Brodhead writes: "the theory of a northern passage to China by way of Nova Zembla had continued, in the meantime, to be warmly supported by many learned men in Holland. Among these was peter Placius, of Amsterdam, who, like his contemporary, Hakluyt, was distinguished no less as a clergyman than as a promoter of maritime enterprise. Plancius insisted that Heemskerk had failed in 1596 because he attempted to go through the Straits of Weygat, instead of keeping to the north of the island. In compliance with Plancius's opinion, the States-General early in 1611, directed that two vessels, the "Little Fox" and the "Little Crane" should be furnished with passports for voyages to discover a northern passage to China. But the ice arrested the vessels long before they could each the eightieth degree of latitude, to which they wee ordered to proceed.--"Hist. N. Y.," I, 45.
Footnote #82: Lossing's "Our Country," V, 214.
Footnote #83: Belfort's "History of the United States," p. 19.
Footnote #84: Note E, appendix, Vol I, p. 754, Brodhead's "History of the State of New York,"
Footnote #85: Wilson's "Memorial History of the City of New York," I, 122.
Footnote #86: Murphy, "N. Y. H. S. Coll.," II, 326.
Footnote #87: Published in 1648.
Footnote #88: Wilson writes: ". . . . it is no injustice to Mr. Brodhead, Mr. Murphy or Miss Booth, to suppose that their prejudice on the other side, in favor of the Ditch, may have influenced them to distrust the early printed accounts which make us acquainted with this incident." He refers students to George Folsom's paper on Argall's Visit, which is to be found in "N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll." Second series, I, 334-42, and remarks: "Perhaps we may regard Mr. Folsom as an impartial witness; a careful perusal of his paper will not fail to leave the impression that it is a historic fact.' --"Mem. Hist. City of New York," I, 123, footnote I.
In the first "History of the United States" that was written by an American and published in America, is the following: "In the year 1613, Captain Argal was sent out, by Sir Thomas Dale, Governor of Virginia, to dispossess the French of the two towns, Port Royal and St. Croix, in Acadia, then claimed as part of Virginia. On his return, he visited the Dutch on Hudson's River, who, being unable to resist him, submitted for the present, to the King of England, and, under him, to the governor of Virginia. Argal abandoned his conquests and the Dutch resumed possession. They also proceeded to settle and fortify,"--See Ramsay's "History of the United States," (1808), I, 170.
Footnote #89: Moulton says that they were erected on the site of the Macomb houses on Broadway, and Miss Booth particularizes the matter by naming as the site no. 39 Broadway.
Footnote #90: Bryant's "History of the Untied States," I, 359.
Footnote #92: Bancroft's "History of the United States," II, 272, footnote.
Footnote #93: Letter of Governor Stuyvesant to Governor of Massachusetts, April 20, 1660.--"Alb. Rec." XXIV, 167.
Footnote #94: Brodhead's "Hist N. Y." I, 88.
Footnote #95: The STATES GENERAL of the United Netherlands, to all to whom these presents shall come, Greeting.
WHEREAS: Gerrit Jacobz Witssen, antient Burgomaster of the City of Amsterdam, Jonas Wirzzen, Simon Morrissen, owners of the ship named the "Little Fox," whereof Jan de With has been Skipper; Hans Hongers, Paulius Pelgrom, Lambrecht van Tweehuyzen, owners of the two ships named the "Tiger" and the "Fortune," whereof Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christiaensen were Skippers; Arnolt van Lydergen, Wessel Schenckm, Hans Claessen, and Berent Sweertssen, owners of the Ship named the "Nightingale," whereof Thys Volckertissen was Skipper, merchants of the aforesaid city of Amsterdam; and Peter Clementssen Brouwer, Jan Clementssen Kies and Cornelius Volckertssen, Merchants of the City of Hoorn, owners of the Ship called the "Fortuyn," whereof Cornelis Jacobssen May was Skipper, all now associated in one Company, have respectfully represented to us that they , the petitioners, after great expense and damages by loss of ships and other dangers, had, during the present year, discovered and found with the above named five ships certain New Lands situate in America, between New France and Virginia, the Seacoasts whereof lie between forty and forty-five degrees of latitude, and now called New Netherland: And Whereas We Did, in the month of March last, for the promotion and increase of commerce, cause to be published a certain General consent and charter setting froth that whosoever should thereafter discover new havens, lands, places or passages, , might frequent, or cause to be frequented, for four voyages, such newly discovered and found places, passages, havens, or lands, to the exclusion of all others from visiting or frequenting the same from the United Netherlands, until the said first discoveries and finders shall, themselves, have completed the said four voyages, or caused the same to be done within the time prescribed for that purpose, under the penalties expressed in the said Octroy, &c., they request that we would accord to them due Act of the aforesaid Octroy in the usual form:
Which, being considered, WE, therefore, on our Assembly, having heard the pertinent Report of the Petitioners, relative to the discoveries, and find of the said new Countries between the above named limits and degrees, and also of their adventures, have consented and granted, and by these presents do consent and grant, to the said Petitioners now united into one Company, that they shall be privileged exclusively to frequent, or cause to be visited, the above newly discovered lands, situate in America, between New France and Virginia, whereof the Seacoasts lie between the fortieth and forty-fifth degree of Latitude, now named New Netherland, as can be seen by a Figurative Map hereunto annexed, and that for four voyages within the term of three years, commencing the first of January, Sixteen Hundred and Fifteen next ensuing, or sooner, without it being permitted to any other person from the United Netherland to sail or navigate, or frequent the said newly discovered lands havens, or places, either directly or indirectly, within the said three Years, on pain of confiscation of the vessel, and Cargo wherewith infraction hereof shall be attempted, and a fine of Fifty thousand Netherland Ducats for the benefit of said discoverers or finders; provided, nevertheless, that by these presents we do not intent to prejudice or diminish any of our former grant or Charters; and it is also Our intention that if any disputes or differences arise from these our concession, they shall be decided by ourselves.
We therefore expressly command all Governor, Justices, Officers, Magistrates and inhabitants of the aforesaid United counties, that they allow the said Company peacefully and quietly to enjoy the whole benefits of this our Grant and consent, ceasing all contradictions and obstacles to the contrary. For such we have found to appertain to the public service. Given under Our Seal, paragh and signature of our Secretary at the Hague, the XIth of October, 1614.
Footnote #96: Block's employers apparently intended to engage in whaling. The Northern Company was formed for this express purpose, Hudson, in one of his reports to the Muscovy Company, having drawn attention to the enormous number of seals and whales he had seen of Spitzenbergen. His reports gave rise to the Spitzenbergen whale fishery, the most important of the Arctic industries. Holland alone drew from these seas, in the years 1679-1778, products valued at about ninety millions of dollars. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Holland sent no less than three hundred ships and fifteen thousand men there each summer, and they established at Spitzenbergen, within the Arctic Circle, one of the most remarkable summer towns,--H. P. Van Sicklen, "History of Polar Exploration and Adventure." P. 10.
Footnote #97: Macauley's "History of England," I, 62.
Footnote #98: Brodhead's "History of the State of New York," I, 129.
The History of New York State, Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc., 1927
This book is owned by Pam Rietsch and is a part of the Mardos Memorial Library
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