The History of New York State
Editor, Dr. James Sullivan
Online Edition by Holice, Deb & Pam
While it seems proper to credit the Dutch with the creation of the modern science of music, the early Dutch school having been pioneers in the development of both polyphony and harmony, thereby reacting upon the music of early Italy, in the matter of graphic and plastic art the situation was reversed. Undoubtedly, the first inspiration of the Dutch painters was Italian. But there can be no question as to the artistic place in history of a school which produced such men as Hals, Rembrandt, Van Dyck, and Rubens. The love of form and color had, in fact, become almost as much a craze in Holland, and in what is now Belgium, as the later obsession over the tulip. Guilds of St. Luke were found in all the principal cities of the United provinces, and the public, its interest stimulated by competition and the festivities with which these were usually accompanied, took a keener interest in art matters than at any subsequent period. The reader can do no better than turn to Charles Reade's great novel, "Cloister and the Hearth," for a picture of the early art of Holland and Italy. No writer o serious history was more thoroughly informed on this subject, nor was any so gifted in vivid portrayal.
The little town of New Amsterdam was from the first a community of art lovers. Even those who could not read remembered the pictures and the public exhibitions at which they were shown, and it is not surprising to find during the brief period of Dutch rule half a dozen painters of more than average excellence. In point of merit the most important of all was Jacobus Strijcker, whose name is more often spelled in colonial records Strycker and has become, as borne by his many American descendants, Striker. In 1643 the Dutch West India Company issued a grant of land to Jacob Strycker and his brother Jan Strycker, on condition that they would pay for the transportation of ten colonists. There is no record that they brought over as many as the grant required, but, at any rate, they came with their families. In the light of the most recent investigation it is assumed that the portrait of Peter Stuyvesant in possession of the New York Historical Society is the work of Strycker. It had been attributed to Van Dyck, perhaps the highest compliment that could have been paid to Strycker, who was entirely self-educated. Other works of Strycker are his portrait of his brother Jan (1617-97), his own portrait, and a portrait of the Jonkheer Adrian Van der Donck, who was the first lawyer in the New Netherlands. The Stuyvesant portrait justifies the statement which most critics will agree to, that Strycker's work is in the finished manner of the Dutch school, and the ablest in Seventeenth century New York. It is interesting to recall that Jacobus Strycker was schout or sheriff of Breukelen under Ditch rule, and that his son became sheriff of Kings County under the British.
Even earlier in point of arrival was Evert Duyckinck, who came over in the service of the Dutch West India Company in 1638. Early records characterize him as "limner, painter, and glazier." For on hundred years, and during three generations, four members of the Duyckinck's family painted portraits in New York, besides such decorative work as outlining in glass coats of arms and other decorations. Evert Duyckinck's sons were Gerret and Evert 2d. The most authentic example of the work of Evert Duyckinck is the portrait of Governor Walter Stoughton, of Massachusetts. Gerret Duyckinck is remembered by portraits of himself and his wife. To a third Every Duyckinck was attributed portraits of six members of the Beekman family.
Still another Dutchman, of Walloon descent, although for a long time he was rated as a Frenchman by the historian of New York art, came over in 1638, Hendrick Coutre, to give the ordinary Dutch version which would be more correctly rendered as the Sieur Henri Couturier. He was a deacon in the Reform Church in which Peter Stuyvesant was elder in 1670, a distinction which no subsequent New York painter has sought. His best known works which are in the possession of New York Historical Society, are portraits of Oloff Stevense van Cortlandt (1610-84), Frederick Philipse (1626-1702) patroon of Philipsborough. The picture of William Nicholas Stuyvesant (1648-93), son of the governor, represents him on horseback, and the figure work is done so badly that it may possibly have been an attempt at humor. In 1663 Mevvrouw Couturier, who had gone into business in a retail line, received a demand from the municipality of New Amsterdam that she purchase her burgher rights. Her defense was that her husband had already received burgher rights, and that in return he had painted portraits of Director-General Stuyvesant and drawn pictures of his sons. As a consequence there was long a disposition to attribute to Couturier the Stuyvesant portrait which is reproduced in this work, and now recognized as from the brush of Jacobus Strycker.
The last of the Dutch painters to arrive was Gerret can Ravolst, who is do described in the minute by which he is made a freeman of the city of New York in 1751. Meantime, the English painters were making themselves felt in the New World. In 1754 Richard Clarke Cooke, "limner," was admitted a freeman. Lawrence Kilbrunn was painting in New York from 1754 to 1755. In 1758 and 1759 the city was honored by the temporary residence of Benjamin West (1738-1820), the first American born painter to attain world celebrity. In that year he devoted himself to portraiture. Perhaps the most striking of his compositions, certainly the one most widely reproduced, is "Death on a Pale Horse," which is appropriately the possession of a Philadelphia Museum, since he was both a Quaker and a Pennsylvanian. In 1753 West began his career, and his portrait of Bishop Prevost is his best work here. During his long career in London, where he succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds as president of the Royal Academy, it was his delight to render what assistance he could to the oncoming generation of American artists.
During this early period New York was visited by John Wollaston, who painted a number of portraits while here, but is confused by Dunlap and other authorities with his father, also an English painter of distinction, but who spelled his name Woolaston. Copley came on from Boston and painted a number of portraits in 1771, and would no doubt have been greatly surprised at the number of canvasses now attributed to him as the product of that one prolific year. Many of the portraits of the Bayards and Beekmans of this early period were the work of Abraham Delanoy. The art of miniature painting speedily followed the close of the Revolutionary War, and at a time when the one outstanding name of a native New Yorker in painting was that of Robert Feke, there were a number of miniaturists at work. The collection of the New York Public Library, the New York Historical Society, the Metropolitan Museum of New York, and the Brooklyn Museum, are rich in examples of this form of art, which languished and died after the invention of photography. Among them were Walter Robertson, John Ramage,. William Williams, Joseph Wood, Robert Fulton, Benjamin Trott and Alexander and Archibald Robertson.
Robert Feke, who was born in what is now Oyster Bay, Long Island, speedily made a reputation as a portrait painter second only to that of Benjamin West. A number of portraits of nearly New Yorkers bear his signature, but the greater part of his work was done and is owned in Philadelphia. Although not a New Yorker a frequent visitor to the city was Charles Wilson Peale, whose portrait of George Washington as a Virginia colonel in the British Colonial Service is probably the first authentic likeness of America's favorite hero.
The first of New York's institutions devoted to fine arts had for its president Chancellor Livingston. Founded in 1801 as the New York Academy of Fine Arts it was incorporated in 1908 as the American Academy of Fine Arts. The second institution of importance was the National Academy of Design, founded in 1828, but it a matter of regret that the records of both were most inadequately kept.
Matthew Pratt painted some fifty large portraits in New York, which also received professional visits of Malbone. Joseph Wright executed some commissions and was liberally patronized, as was also Gilbert Stuart, when, on his return to America in 1793, he set up his easel for some months in New York City before going to Philadelphia. Bass Otis appeared in New York about 1808, two years later than Thomas Sully, who came in 1806, and again in 1814, by invitation from New York City, to paint Commodore Decatur's portrait, the first of the series of full-lengths of heroes of the War of 1812, ordered by the Common Council. The others were executed by John W. Jarvis, sully having refused top paint a certain subject upon which Gilbert Stuart had begun before him.
Meanwhile, a number of talented artists had settled permanently in New York City. James Sharpless, an Englishman, who worked principally in pastel, came about 1798, John Trumbull, in 1804, and John Paradise in 1810. Rembrandt Peale removed to New York City in 1834. John Wesley Jarvis, an Englishman by birth, was for many years one of the foremost portrait painters in New York, which owns a number of his pictures, among his contemporaries were William Dunlap, James Herring, who, with James B. Longacre, of Philadelphia, published the "National Portrait Gallery"; Samuel F. B. Morse, among whose portraits is one of Fitz-Greene Halleck in the Public Library; Asher B. Durand, and Samuel L. Waldo, who entered into a partnership with his pupil, William Jewett.
Jarvis was succeeded by Henry Inman, who, though born twenty-one years later than Jarvis, outlived him by only six. Inman was an artist of great versatility, but he concentrated his talent in the main on portraiture, in which he scored a pronounced success, among his portraits being several of the poet Halleck. He was succeeded by a number of excellent portrait painters, and the art colony in New York included most of the noted artists in the United States. Charles Loring Elliott was noted as a colorist and for his power of seizing on the mental and moral character of his sitters. Daniel Huntington, William Page--an experimentalist noted for his colorings--George A. Baker, Thomas Hicks, Thomas Le Clear, and Joseph Ames were among the best known of these.
The art of miniature painting had also considerable vogue at this time. It was practiced by a number of artists, among whom was Nathaniel Rogers, and later, Henry C. Shumway, who rose the fore most rank of miniature painters in New York. Thomas Cummings--the only survivor of the original thirty founders of the National Academy of Design--Richard M. Stagg, and Nathaniel Southworth also stood high in the profession. "Mysterious" Brown, the instructor of N. Rogers; Miss Anne Hill, and Samuel R. Fanshawe are among the others who met with success in this branch of art. Inman worked also in crayon drawing, as did also Peter Duggan and Alexander Lawrie.
We thus find that during the decades that led up to 1840 portraiture preponderated. It would appear that lack of appreciation of art for its own sake restricted painters to the field of portraiture. There was no demand for genre pictures, and the nude had hardly gained a place in this country. In John Trumbull and John Vanderlyn we find the firs figure painters of undoubted prominence in New York. Trumbull's "Death of Montgomery" and his "Battle of Bunker Hill: are among the most imposing examples of American historical painting. The artist spent many years in Europe, and in 1804 settled in New York, and became on of the founders and the president of the Academy of Fine Arts. John Vanderlyn's talent was first discovered by Aaron burr, who invited him to New York. After spending a number of year abroad, Vanderlyn in 1815 returned to this country, where he had a continuous struggle with adversity. His two best-known wors are his "Marius on the Ruins of Carthage" and the "Ariadne," which latter was engraved by A. B. Durand. Gerlando Marsiglia and William Dunlap were executing elaborate historical and scriptural compositions in those early days, and S. F. B. Morse is known as the painter of a "Dying Hercules,"; showing a very thorough knowledge of anatomy. Charles C. Ingham, an Irishman, showed a "Death of Cleopatra," marked by exquisite finish and harmonious coloring.
The on distinctive school of painting developed in New York was in landscapes, and was known as the Hudson River School, because of the fact this its masters were chiefly resident on the bank of the Hudson and found their chief inspiration in the varied scenery it affords. Thomas Cole, of Catskill, is regarded as the founder, and he shared the honors with Asher Durand, originally an engraver, but with too strong a color sense to remain satisfied with work in black and white. Cole's leanings were toward the romantic, Durand's toward the realistic treatment of their themes. John F. Kensett, Jr., J. A. Richards, Worthington Whittridge, J. F. Cropsey, Sanford R. Gifford, George Inness, F. E. Church, Bierstadt and McEntee were the best known of the Hudson River School, whose later followers were Samuel Coleman, William T. Richards, Homer D. Martin, Alexander Wyatt, Thomas Moran, and R. Swain Gifford. George Inness, born in Newburgh, May 1, 1825, lived chiefly in Newark. He had drawing lessons at fourteen, studied in Rome, and exhibited at the National Academy for the first time in 1865. The Chicago Art Institute devotes a whole room to eighteen of his paintings. George Innes, Jr., (1854-99), his son and pupil, born in 1854, was made a National Academician in 1899. Many consider his workmanship greater than his father's.
Genre Painting.--In the field of genre the most conspicuous figure in earlier times was William S. Mount, who is regarded as practically the pioneer of genre art in this country. He was the first to make us intimately acquainted with the affairs of rustic life. Francis W. Edmonds, a bank cashier, found time to paint clever genre pictures, and Henry Inman and Thomas Hicks also produced some work in this vein. Finally, John B. Irving, a talented artist, executed cabinet-size genres, careful in drawing and color. The opening of the West inspired some of our artists, as it did our poets; the most artistic outcome of this impetus is found in the department of landscape. The men who depleted the picturesque life of the Indian, the trapper, and other border characters, though men of ability, were not artists of the first rank. Yet the vigor of painters like George Catlin, Charles Deas, and William Ranney, may be said to atone for technical defects. Later John G. Brown and Thomas W. Wood became known among the artists taken up with genre art. The former made a specialty of the New York gamin, while Wood depicted scenes in American village life, and was one of the first to seize upon the artistic possibilities of the Negro. In the domain of "ideal art" Elihu Vedder, a native of New York, residing in Italy, stood by himself in his peculiar style and tendencies. His works showed a predilection for weird subjects, as in his "Lair of the Sea Serpent."
Foreign artists from the early period onwards made New York their scene of action. Not a few such as Emile Renouf, Benjamin Constant and Michael Munkacsy, paid New York professional visits; others, like Jules E. Saintin, Victor Nehlig, worked in the State for long or short periods; and other settled permanently in New York, and registered their names in every department of art. Prominent between 1850 and 1870 was John F. Kensett, an artist of advanced theories, who held high rank among landscape painters. The influence of the Dusseldorf school is shown in the productions of Albert Bierstadt, whose bold treatment of imposing scenery insured for his pictures much popular favor. Thomas Moran id much to make us acquainted with the beauties of scenery made accessible by the opening of the West. Frederick E. Church became noted as a painter of great natural phenomena, producing impressive paintings of Niagara, icebergs, and volcanoes; and the work of Sanford R. Gifford was noted for its luminous atmospheric effects and brilliant coloring. The subjective spirit more conspicuously dominated the productions of later artists, such as the contemplative George Inness, Jervis McEntee, Homer D. Martin, and Alexander H. Wyant.
Marine and Animal Art.--In marine art, with the exception of the fine sea pieces of William J. Bennett, New York, despite its situation, possessed hardly any names of note till the later period. William F. De Haas, a Hollander, had his studio in the city for many years, and his brother, Maurice F. H. De Haas, became some of our best marine painters; while Arthur Quartley, Francis A. Silva, and William Bradford were among those who won both artistic and popular success. Animal painters may be regarded as alter product, though John James Audubon earlier made drawings for his work on American ornithology. William hays portrayed the buffalo and the prairie-dog, Thomas B. Thorpe, the author, essayed his skill in humorous delineations of Western fauna, and Gilbert Burling painted mainly water colors of game birds. William H. Beard took an individual line, depicting the animal worlds as subject to human foibles after the manner of Aesop. James hart introduced cattle in his landscapes with good effect, and Peter Moran won a notable reputation also in this field. In the reproduction of still life, fruit and flower pieces and similar subjects, Shepard A. Mount and Henry S. Mount, appear to have been the first to gain success.
The decoration of churches afforded a notable field in which a number of artists specialized with success. In the production of stained glass windows John La Farge, William H. Low, Francis Lathrop, Louis C. Tiffany, Mrs. Ella Condie Lamb and other won success. Fine work in the way of mural paintings, stained windows, and sculpture was executed in a great number of churches and other buildings, and in course of time decorative work became an indispensable feature in the interior of office buildings, which in an older time were marked by an extreme plainness. Naturally in the various theatres and opera houses there was a demand that grew continuously for decorative work of the most spacious kind.
Water Color Painting.--In the latter part of the nineteenth century the art of water color painting began to show a marked development. A collection of English water colors exhibited in New York in 1865 is said to have given a stimulus that resulted in the formation, within a year, of the American Water Color Society, which held its first exhibition in 1867, the society publishing at the time a pamphlet enlightening the general ignorance as to the durability of water colors. From that date interest in aquarelles increased, and found expression in the founding of the New York Water Color Club in 1890, and in the arrangement of minor exhibitions at various times. Albert F. Bellows, Gilbert Burling, and John M. Falconer were among the early members of the society, and a large number of artists began to devote considerable attention to watercolor painting, in which much technical advance was soon recorded. Pastels, a medium difficult to handle, but with which beautiful and delicate effects can be produced, was taken up by a number of artists, and the Society of Painters in Pastel was founded, and annual exhibitions were held.
Panoramas and Scene Painting.--Artists in New York also showed ability in the production of panoramas and the painting of scenery for the theatre. A panorama of London, exhibited in Greenwich Street in 1795 by William Winstanley, is aid to have been the first picture of the kind seen in this country. Vanderlyn, visiting Versailles, formed the project of painting a panoramic view of the place. In 1817, two years after his return to the United States, he erected a panoramic building in New York--the Rotunda--in which he showed a number of panoramas. Among exhibitions of this kind at a later date were a panorama of New York City, painted by Holland and his pupils, Reinagle and Evers, and shown in 1813, and John Banyard's panorama of the Mississippi, three miles in length; Robert Burford's Jerusalem; Loomis' panorama of Cuba; Sattler's Cosmorama, and Catherwood's Jerusalem. Later the panorama and cycloramas shown in New York bore the signature of foreign artists. Later still the development of the motion picture displaced them. Later scene painters displayed much talent. Thomas A. Cooper, who managed the New York Theatre, gave employment to various artists. Matt Morgan, the caricaturist, illustrator, painter, designed of theatrical lithographic posters, and maker of art pottery, was well known as an excellent scene painter. The American Society of Scenic Painters was founded in 1892. The later French influence showed itself in the art colonies in New York, and the growing discontent with old methods found expression in the Art Students' League and the Society of American Artists.
Annual Exhibitions.--With the turn of the century and as a result of the ever growing prosperity of the country, painting came more than ever into its own and the various societies held exhibitions every year in which the work of the various artists were displayed. The National Academy of Design held two exhibitions every year, one in the spring, and one in the winter. The prize awards usually indicated a wide range of taste on the part of the jury. The Thomas B. Clarke prize for "the best American figure composition painted in the United States by an American citizen" went in 1910 to Frederick A. Waugh for his "Buccaneers," representing a lively scrimmage aboard ship, with flashing swords, powder smoke and a scene of carnage. The Saltus medal fell to Douglas Volk for a group entitled "The Little Sister," two children happily treated in a golden tone. For the best landscape J. Francis Murphy's "In the Shadow of the Hills," received a first prize, the Inness gold medal. The Hallgarten prizes for the best three pictures painted by Americans under thirty-five went to Gifford Beal, Louis D. Vaillant, and Charles Rosen. The winner of the Shaw memorial Prize for the best work by an American woman was awarded to Susan Watkins for an interior showing much Chinese porcelain, runs on a polished floor, a delightful room to work or dream in.
The winter exhibition brought up the need for a larger gallery for New York, for so restricted was the space that no more then two pictures by one painter could be accepted. The most interesting exhibit of the Winter Academy was perhaps that of the four Winslow Homers, lent by citizens and institutions. They were "Camp Fire," "The Coming Storm," "High Cliffs," and "The West Wind," all of them familiar to admirers of the late artist. The post of honor in the exhibition was held by John W. Alexander's vision of two pretty girls, entitled "A summer Day," which had previously been seen in Philadelphia. The prizes were awarded as follows: The Carnegie prize for the most meritorious oil painting not a portrait went to William S. Robinson for his landscape, "Golden Days"; the Thomas R. Proctor prize for the best portrait to Douglas Volk's "Marion of Hewnoaks"; the Isidor Memorial Medal for the bet figure composition to Kenyon Cox. In the same year the annual exhibition of the Water color Society had as its most conspicuous contribution John S. Sargent's portrait of William Butler Yeats, the Irish poet. A curiosity in the way of art exhibitions was the show held in New York by the Independent Artists. Nearly 300 paintings, some of them excellent, some of them merely grotesque experiments, were shown to the bewilderment of many visitors.
Later, at the entrance of the United States into participation in the European war, a different direction was given to activities in many art circles. Many artists were employed by the government to make official drawings, etc., not only of conditions at the front, but in marine camouflage departments and the varied industries immediately connected with modern warfare. The Liberty Loan drives had the cooperation of many artists, particularly in New York City, where the Fifth Avenue shops formed an almost continuous exhibition of war paintings. War posters were exhibited by prominent artists in front of the New York Public Library. The Allied War Salon showed the works of artists officially chosen to portray scenes of the front. Particularly noted were the realistic lithographs of George Bellows, the lively "Blue Devils of France on Fifth Avenue" by George Luks, and the painstaking series of drawings by Captain Andre Smith. The British government lent works by Brangwin, Augustus John, Eric Kennington, C. H. Nevinson, Muirhead Bone, and others, and the French government contributed the Forain and Steinlen lithographs and drawings, sinister and powerful.
The spring exhibition of the National Academy in that year showed a predominant interest in landscape paintings, probably owing to the fact that the important prizes of the spring exhibition were by non-members, which gave opportunity to the younger artists. The first Altman prize was awarded to Paul Dogherty for a forceful painting of the rocky Maine coast; the second to Childe Hassam for "Allies' Day, May, 1917," one of a series, "The Avenue of the Allies," representing Fifth Avenue bedecked with flags in war time, and later exhibited in a New York gallery. The Inness fold medal went to Howard Giles for a picture of Maine woods. In the winter exhibition the first Altman prize was awarded to Victor Higgins for "Fiesta Day," a study in white of Indians. Other prize winners were Leopold Seyffert's "The Lacquer Screen," J. F. Carlsons' "Winter Rigor," Louis Betts' "Portrait of my Wife," and A. Blondheim's "Decoration." Of great interest was the Ryder memorial held at the Metropolitan Museum which included the "White Horse" series, the "Forest of Arden," "Pegasus," "Flying Dutchman," some pastorals, several marines of a strong and weird loneliness, all replete with mystical, symbolic quality which belongs to the artist.
The second annual exhibition of the Society of Independent artists had nearly 1,500 inline, arranged alphabetically and with much consequent clashing of colors and inharmonious contrasts. With the exception of those artists who composed the committees in charge, like John Sloan, Randall Davey, Ernest Lawson, Leon Kroll, W. Glackens, George Bellows, William Starkweather, most of the exhibitors were new, but since the aim of the society is to bring before the public just such little known artists, this was as it should be. In the same year important individual exhibitions were held in New York galleries of the works of Edmund Tarbell, Robert Henry, and Bryson Burroughs.
In recent years in New York art interests have been marked by a noticeable effort on the part of dealers, art societies, and magazines to stimulate the interest, especially by buying interest, of the public. The dealers' reports in this regard have been optimistic and the constant spread of art appreciation in schools, clubs, and the increasing cooperation of the museums have produced gratifying results. The constant stream of works of art from the old world to the new, to swell the great private collections as well as the growing museums, has continued unabated, not without expressions of disapproval from the original sources.
The spring exhibition of the National Academy in 1924 consisted of 386 paintings and sculptures of which 221 were by non-members. Notable among the prize winners was the first Altman award, "The Jericho Road," by W. l. Lathrop. The winter exhibition opened with nearly 350 paintings and sculptures in the three large galleries. The exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists was notable for the display of the work of twenty contemporary Chines artists, painted in the spirit and the traditions of the ancient art of their native land. The retrospective work of John singer Sergent was also known at the Grand Central Art Galleries, with an amazing display of his numerous portraits and figure pieces, painted with a virtuosity unknown to any other contemporary painter. It was estimated that over 50,000 people viewed this exhibition during the month it was open to the public.
Sculpture.--The painters preceded the sculptors in the art development of New York. There were here several painters of considerable name before native talent began to exercise itself in the more difficult plastic medium. Nor did New York take the lead in this direction, although foreign sculptors, like Houdon and Ceracchi were early with it, and it has since harbored many sculptors of fame. It was Philadelphia that gave birth to William rush, a carver of figure heads for ships who, in his vigorously modeled busts of wood and clay, gave the first indications of the latent possibilities to be expected in antive sculpture.
One of the earliest sculptors in New York was an Irishman, John Dixey, who arrived in 1789. He modeled some ideal statuary, such as His "Hercules and Hydra," and "Ganymede" and executed also a figure of Justice for the top of City Hall. Sculpture, however, hardly became a recognized factor in the progress of native art until about the beginning of the nineteenth century. Even as late as 1815 Trumbull told John Frazee, who had applied to him for advice, that sculpture would not be wanted here for another hundred years. This same Frazee, however, who was originally a stone cutter, produced a number of creditable portrait busts, including those of John Marshall, Daniel Webster, Andrew Jackson and John Jay. His bust of John Wells, the noted lawyer (1824), was, it was said, the first one executed in marble of an American. A year or so before Frazee came to New York there was born here one who was destined to step into the front rank of American sculptors. Thomas Crawford, a pupil of Frazee, of Robert E. Launitz, and later of Thorwaldsen, produced a spirited equestrian statute of Washington for Richmond, Virginia, and the impressive figure of Beethoven in the Boston Music hall, both of which aroused the greatest enthusiasm in Munich, where they were cast, as well as in this country. His style, as exemplified in these works, as well as in his "Orpheus and Cerberus," and the "Indian Chief," was marked by great earnestness of purpose, while his versatility and industry appear to have been equally great. His "Flora" and eighty-seven plaster casts of his works were placed in the chapel at Mount St. Vincent in Central Park.
The History of New York State, Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc., 1927
This book is owned by Pam Rietsch and is a part of the Mardos Memorial Library
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