The History of New York State
Editor, Dr. James Sullivan
Online Edition by Holice, Deb & Pam
|"Commercial Advertiser," and Cooper.--The
"commercial Advertiser" was regarded as a kind of political
barometer, and its signs were eagerly looked for alike by friend and
foe. While under Stone's editorship it was brought into particular
prominence by the fact that--together with the "Tribune,"
"The American," edited by Dr. King, and "The Albany
Evening Journal," controlled by Thurlow Weed--it was made the
defendant in the celebrated libel suits brought by Fenimore Cooper. The
particular grievance against the "Commercial" on the part of
the great novelist was a review of his "Home as Found," and
his "History of the Navy of the United States." The review in
question was not written by Colonel Stone, but by another better versed
in naval affairs than himself; but as he believed that a great injustice
had been done to the gallant Commodore Perry, he assumed the
responsibility of its publication. As this suit involved the then
unsettled question of the extent to which a reviewer might lawfully go
in literary criticism, and as it was a case of the "first
impression" in the courts, it excited a public interest.
The case was tried in 1840, at Utica, by Marshall S. Bidwell; Charles P. Kirkland, and Judge William W. Campbell, of Cherry Valley, for Colonel Stone, and for Mr. Cooper, by himself and his nephew. The court gave judgment for Mr. Cooper--a decision which occasioned much animadversion on the ground of its alleged interference with the just liberty of the press in the matter of reviewing and criticizing literary works. It was then taken up by writ of error to the Court of Correction of Errors, which at that time was the State Senate; and in 1845, a year after Colonel Stone's death, that court reversed the judgment of the Supreme Court, very broadly in favor of a reversal and the court deciding four to one.
Vicissitudes of the "Commercial Advertiser".--colonel Stone, as well as Mr. Bryant, of the "New York Evening Post," was always very particular in the use of works--so much so as to cause him to be looked up to by the press in general as the authority in this regard. Some of his brother editors were won to say that he was hypercritical. In the autumn of 1843 Colonel Stone began to experience symptoms which indicated the necessity of repose. Accordingly, in the early spring of 1844, he left the "Commercial Advertiser" in charge of Inman, who had been his associate for several years, and, in exception of relief from its waters, repaired to Saratoga Springs, where he died at the residence of his father-in-law, the Rev. Francis Wayland.
On the death of Colonel Stone his half interest was purchased by John B. Hall, the some of his old partner; and John Inman, and afterwards Mr. West, an Englishman, were successively employed by the halls to edit the paper. On the dissolution of the Whig party in 1856, the "Commercial Advertiser" became a Republican organ--a position which it could not do otherwise than assume, if it would be consistent with its former principles--its editor having always advocated the abolition of slavery by Congressional convention at Baltimore, in 1825, originated and drawn up the able plan of slave emancipation at that time recommended to Congress for adoption. Colonel Stone advocated at this time the nomination of Mr. Clay; and although two other candidates were unexpectedly nominated, thus defeating the election of Clay by Jackson, yet the editor of the "Commercial Advertiser" was saved the disagreeable alternatives either of supporting a pro-slavery candidate or of giving his vote to one whose political principles he disliked.
Upon the retirement of the Halls, father and son, on January 1, 1863, the "Commercial Advertiser" passed into the hands of William Henry Hurlbert, who for a short time, was its editor. That veteran politician and journalists, Thurlow Weed, next became its owner and editor; but going soon after to Europe for his health, he left the paper in charge of Hugh Hastings, a former editor of the "Albany Knickerbocker," who had purchased a part interest in the concern. After many changes of proprietorship following the death of Mr. Hastings, on September 12, 1883, it was carried on by Colonel John Cockerill, formerly managing editor of the "New York World." A morning edition of the paper was issued under the name of "The Morning Advertiser." It enjoyed the distinction of being the oldest newspaper in the metropolis.
The "Morning Advertiser" was short lived. The "Globe and Commercial Advertiser," as the evening paper was later called, passed to the editorial control of Henry John Wright in 1897. He had been on the staff of the morning edition, finally becoming city editor, and on its discontinuance, entered the service of the New York "Evening Post," in the same capacity, and as editor-in-chief, made the "Globe" the organ of the liberal thought in the afternoon field. Frank A. Munsey bought the "Globe" in 1923, following the death of its chief owner, and merged it with the "Sun" in order to give that paper an Associated Press franchise.
"Evening Post," Organ of the Federalists.--The next New York daily newspaper to come into existence was the "New York Evening Post," which was started as an organ of the Federalists under the immediate patronage of Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and their political associates. The first number of the paper was issued on November 16, 1801, with William Coleman as its editor. Coleman was a native of Massachusetts and had practiced law in Greenfield in that State. He had written occasionally for the "Gazette" in that town, and came into local prominence during Shay's rebellion, having been one of the leaders against the insurgents. He was also for two years a member of the Legislature from that place. About 1794 he removed to New York and for a little while was a law partner of Aaron Burr. He was also for a short time reporter of the New York Supreme Court, but lost that position on the defeat of the Federalists in 1800, his personal loyalty to Hamilton making him a conspicuous mark for the shafts of the opposition. It was not long after his removal before Hamilton, moved by friendship, and perhaps by a desire to have a personal organ, established the "Evening Post" with the help of some friends, and installed Coleman as editor.
Coleman began with the intention, as he declared in his first editorial, of keeping the "Post" clear of "personal virulence, low sarcasm, and verbal contentions with printers and editors," and with the desire of "inculcating just principles in religion and politics as well as morals." The maelstrom of politics, however, soon drew him into its vortex, and he was forced into becoming one of the most pungent caustic and bitterly partisan writers of the day in advocacy of the principles of the Federalists. Nor was it long before he became involved in an acrimonious dispute with two Republican editors, Cheetham, of the "American Citizen," and Duane, of the "Aurora." Forgetting his determination not to allow himself to be drawn into "personal virulence and low sarcasm" he printed in one of the numbers of his paper the following:
Lie on, Duane, lie on for pay,
He was challenged by Cheetham; but the encounter was prevented by Judge Brockholst Livingston, who, at the request of common friends, arrest the principals and bound them over to keep the peace. The after consequences of the affair were more serious; for upon its becoming known, Captain Thompson, at that time harbor master of the port of New York, declared publicly that Coleman lacked personal courage. A challenge from Coleman to Thompson followed, they met in the summer of 1803 at the Potter's Field, later Washington Parade Ground, and later still Washington Square, and Thompson fell mortally wounded at the second fire. Neither the surviving principal nor Thompson's second, Cheetham, was ever arrested. Coleman, according to Hudson, attended to his business as usual. The year following this duel (1804) Coleman associated with himself as a partner Michael Burnham, who became the publisher of the paper, though not one of its proprietors. Burnham possessed fine business ability, and under his management the paper became a success. A weekly edition was also issued under the title of the "New York Herald."
The "Evening Post" was among the chief supporters of DeWitt Clinton in 1812; and together with the "Commercial Advertiser," was friendly to him politically during the last years of his career. Coleman also advocated the election of William H. Crawford, of Georgia, as against John Quincy Adams, whose candidacy he strenuously opposed. It was while the "Evening Post" was under the editorial supervision of Coleman that the celebrated satirical odes from the pens of Joseph Rodman Drake and Fritz-Greene Halleck appeared in that year. This was in the spring of 1819, and their publication added greatly to the reputation of the paper.
"Post" Order Beyond Editorship.--Coleman remained editor of the "Evening Post" until the summer of 1829, in which year he was carried off by a stroke of apoplexy. The death of Coleman left William Cullen Bryant the sole editor. Associated with Mr. Bryant as assistant editor was William Leggett, an ex-officer of the navy and a poet, who had come into some literary prominence from having written "Leisure Hours at Sea," while yet a midshipman. Leggett retired from the "Evening Post" in 1836, and established during the same year a weekly political sheet called the "Plaindealer." It was while Leggett was associated with Bryant that the poet-editor's collision with Colonel Stone, of the "Commercial Advertiser" occurred. For this encounter an article having appeared in the "Commercial Advertiser," which referred to Mr. Bryant by name as the holder of certain Democratic principles to which the editor of the "Commercial Advertiser" was opposed, Mr. Bryant would probably have overlooked the matter had he not been encouraged to action by Mr. Leggett. Mr. Bryant, in company with Leggett, met Colonel Stone on Broadway, opposite St. Paul's and attempted to use a horsewhip. The editor of the "Commercial Advertiser," who was a stalwart man, snatching the whip from his assailant's hand, became in turn the aggressor. Leggett the following day challenged Stone to a duel, on the ground of some offense which he held against the editor, growing out of this affair. On this occasion Robert C. Sands was Stone's friend, and Prosper W. Wettmore, acted for Leggett. But after a correspondence carried on between the seconds for some two weeks, the affair was dropped.
Under the editorship of Bryant the "Evening Post" became a great power in the councils of the Democratic party, the chief and distinctive principle of which at that time was free trade. The principle Mr. Bryant advocated with great ability. Nor while making the advocacy of Democratic policy a distinctive feature of his paper did he neglect its poetical, literary and esthetic characteristics. Belles-lettres were given a prominent place, and while Bryant lived his paper was enriched by contributions from Cooper, Irving, Halleck, Verplanck, Paulding and Willis. Although a strong and almost a bitter democrat, Bryant's patriotism at the time of the secession heresy rose nobly far above party; and throughout the Civil War the "Evening Post" was an able advocate of the principles of the Republican organization.
The "Evening Post" carried great influence with the old merchants of New York, and was able to render service to the United States Government by persuading the well-to-do classes to take its bonds. Mr. Bryant's literary labors were not confined to the paper he edited. Besides numerous works in prose and verse, he was an admirable speaker, and his addresses on the several occasions of the dedication of the statues of Morse, Shakespeare, Scott and Halleck, in Central Park, were models of justice, of appreciation, and of felicity of expression. His last public appearance was at the unveiling of the bust of Mazzini in Central Park, May 29, 1878. It was an unusually hot day, and after delivering his oration, he accompanied General James Grant Wilson to his residence. General Wilson reached his door with Mr. Bryant leaning on his arm, and while his back was for a moment turned to use his pass key the poet fell back, his head striking on the platform step. He lingered until the morning of June 12, when he died.
The last thirty years of the life of Bryant, writes General Wilson, "were devoid of incident. He devoted himself to journalism as conscientiously as if he still had his spurs to win, discussing all public questions with independence and fearlessness; and from time to time, as the spirit moved him, he added to our treasures of song, contributing to the popular magazines of the period, and occasionally issuing these contributions in separate volumes." After Bryant's death the "Evening Post" passed into the hands of his son-in-law, Parke Godwin, who had been previously connected with the paper. Edward L. Godkin, became part owner and editor, conducting it in connection with the literary weekly called the "Nation."
Henry Villard, former war correspondent, and later a pioneer in the development of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and Horace White, of the "Chicago Tribune," then became chief owners, in 1881, and eventually the control passed to the Villard family. General Carl Schurz was editor for at time. Mr. Villard had married the daughter of William Lloyd Garrison, and his son, Oswald Garrison Villard became president of the "Evening Post" company in 1897. He installed the Rev. Dr. Rollo Ogden as editor in chief in 1903, but continued to head the business organization, and to contribute to the editorial columns. The staff for some years included Simeon Strunsky, Royal J. Davis, J. Ranken Towse, Henry Theophilus Finck, L. J. de Bekker, and Charles Sawyer. The World War had an adverse effect upon the fortunes of the "Evening Post," and in July, 1918, Mr. Villard sold the property to Thomas J. Lamont, one of the partners in J. P. Morgan & Company, retaining the ownership of the "Nation." Professor Edwin Francis Gay, of Harvard University, was installed as editor and president, in 1920, functioning for three years, at the end of which time Mr. Lamont sold the paper to Cyrus K. H. Curtis, of Philadelphia. Mr. Curtis placed Julian S. mason, formerly associate editor of the New York "Herald-Tribune" in charge, and erected a handsome new building for what has been, since the merger of the "Globe and Commercial Advertiser," the oldest of New York's dailies.
Before the middle of the nineteenth century there came on the stage of New York journalism two persons, Charles King and Mordecai M. Noah, both of whom figured prominently in the history of the New York press. Mr. King compelled the admiration even of his political enemies by his sterling integrity. He started the New York "American" as a conservative newspaper, and edited it with great ability from 1827 to 1845, when he associated himself with General James Watson Webb in the editorship of the New York "Courier and Enquirer." This place he held until 1849, in which year he was chosen president of Columbia College. Under his management the "American" was not so much a controversial paper as a literary one, although on several occasions--notably when it was drawn into becoming a Tammany or Bucktail organ and acted with Van Buren against DeWitt Clinton--Dr. King became for the time an active political partisan. On another occasion also he tool sides with Colonel Stone, of the "Commercial Advertiser," against the Presbyterian clergy of New York, thus making for himself many enemies against the ultra-Protestant party.
Mordecai M. Noah was born in Philadelphia in 1785, and from his boyhood showed a predilection for newspaper work; and when his paper, the "New York Enquirer," which he had taken great pride in establishing, was merged into the "Morning Courier and New York Enquirer," he became associated with General Webb in its management until 1832. He afterwards founded "Noah's Sunday Times and Weekly Messenger," which he edited until his death in 1851. This paper of Major Noah's, together with the "Albion," edited by William Young, who published in 1850 "Two Hundred Lyrical Poems of Beranger, done into English Verse," and several other works, the "Mirror," edited by Nathaniel P. Willis, and Morris, and the "World," by Park Benjamin, were the first attempts to establish purely literary newspapers in New York. These papers, however, met with little financial support, and after a more or less lingering existence, eventually died. Noah, in 1834, established the New York "Evening Star." It supported William Henry Harrison during his campaign for the Presidency in 1840; but languishing for lack of support, it was finally merged in the "Commercial Advertiser."
The "Journal of Commerce" and Its news Boats.--The next morning paper of any permanence to be established in New York was the "Journal of Commerce"; its first issue was September 1, 1827. Founded under the auspices of Arthur Tappan, its first editor was William Maxwell, if Norfolk, Virginia, who had been brought to New York by Mr. Tappan, and, with his brother Lewis, was at this time engaged in the importation of dry goods at their store in Pearl Street. It is said that Arthur Tappan was so sure of the justice of his cause that he invested $30,000 in the paper, a very handsome sum in those days. Both of the brothers were strong abolitionists; and the paper was designed in a measure to favor the cause of the slave. Arthur Tappan eventually sold his interest to his brother Lewis, David Hale, and Horace Bushnell, the last of whom in later years acquired a national reputation as a writer on theology. In 1828 David Hale and Gerald Hallock, citizens of Boston, Massachusetts, became the proprietors--Hale assuming the duties of publisher, and Hallock of editor. It was not long, however, before the "Journal of Commerce" from a strong abolitionist paper began to veer again to the opposite side, becoming at first conservative and finally a pro-slavery organ. The "Journal of Commerce" was the first to employ the famous news schooners in 1829-30.
Previous to this time only rowboats had been used by any of the New York papers, and, of course, none were capable of going out to sea for news. The enterprise of the "Journal" in sending a schooner into the broad Atlantic to intercept vessels for news was ridiculed by its contemporaries. The result of the first venture proved the sagacity of the proprietors of the "Journal," and, accordingly, as a next step, another schooner of ninety tons was procured, and the two schooners were constantly cruising about either in the harbor or out at sea for news from the first vessel sighted. The other New York newspapers were forced to combine and secure a small vessel to compete with their more enterprising rival. Nor was this the only method used by the "Journal of commerce" to outstrip its neighbors. In 1833 the same paper established a "horse express" from Philadelphia to New York with eight relays, and was thus enabled to publish the Southern news and the proceedings of Congress one day in advance of the other papers, which were thus compelled to establish an opposition express. The "Journal of Commerce" then extended its relays to Washington, and always had the news twenty-four hours in advance of even the Government express. This "Journal Express" employed twenty-four horses and frequently made the 227 miles between Washington and New York in twenty hours.
The "Journal of Commerce" was always bitterly antagonistic to the "Courier and Enquirer." General Hallock directed towards that paper a bitter stream of sarcasm; while the "Courier," in turn, denounced the "Journal: as the principal organ of fanaticism and hypocrisy;" and "the advocate of every measure calculated directly or indirectly to cast a stigma on the character of our country and its people." The "Courier" was Whig paper, and the "Journal" Democratic; and they belabored each other with literary cudgels incessantly with all the vituperation of the journalism of old times, when, it has been truly said, " a spade was invariably pronounced a spade."
The excitement of the slavery question ran high in the fourth decade of the century. A reward even of $50,000 was offered in New Orleans for the body of Arthur Tappan, the abolitionist and former owner of the "Journal of Commerce"; while another reward also was offered at the same time for the body of his brother, Lewis Tappan, "formerly one of the 'Journal's' proprietors." As an outcome of this, the latter's house in New York was, in 1834, sacked by a mob. David hale died in 1849. Hallock, the other proprietor, remained chief editor of the "journal" until September, 1861, when he retired to new Haven, Connecticut, where he died in January, 1863. He established the Boston "Telegraph" in 1824, and was at one time a part proprietor of the New York "Observer," In the early days of the "Journal of Commerce," although its editorial head, he reported fires for its news columns. Running through a dark narrow street one night to report a fire he fell into a cellar. He clambered out and sat down on the curbstone to rub himself a little; and then seeing the light of the fire he sped on his reportorial errand and had a full report in the "Journal of Commerce" the next morning.
When Mr. Hallock retired in 1861 it was arranged that the paper should be published by David M. Stone, who had for twelve years previously been its business manger, beginning in 1849, as its commercial editor. In 1862, in conjunction with William C. Prime, he purchased the interest of the paper, succeeding the latter in 1866 as editor-in-chief--an office that the retained for many years. Mr. Stone was for along time also president of the New York Association Press. An interesting event in the history of the paper was its suppression by the Government in 1864, for publishing the bogus proclamation purporting to have been issued by President Lincoln. It appeared in the "Journal of Commerce" May 18, 1864. The "Tribune," by accident, did not receive a copy. The "Times" received it, but on inquiring at the office f the Associated Press found it to be a forgery. The "herald" printed 254,00 copies without discovering the fraud, but finding at 4 o'clock in the morning that neither the "Times" nor the "Tribune" had published it, struck it out of subsequent editions.
What gave the "Journal of Commerce" much of its high reputation was its "money article" which had the reputation of being written without regard to selfish and pecuniary interests. Its department of "Questions and Answers" required much research, but the staff gave so much attention to it that it became, among the merchants of New York and indeed of the United States, an acknowledged authority. For many years the "Journal of Commerce" was in the possession of the Dodsworth family, who developed it as a purely business organ, specializing in the news of shipping, the primary markets, commodities in general, insurance, and the dry goods trade. William C. Reich, famous as one of the city editors of the New York "Herald," became president of the company in 1916, and retained the editorship until his death. The paper was purchased in 1926 by Victor Ridder and his brothers, who had by them inherited from their father the ownership of the "Staats Zeitung," and show their intention of acquiring a chain of dailies. H. Parker Willis, one of the ablest men on the staff, was made editor in chief, and in 1927 the Ridders purchased and merged with the "Journal of commerce," the New York "Commercial," a business daily which had passed through many vicissitudes during an even longer period of existence.
The first newspaper to be sold in New York at the price of one cent was the "New Yorker," which was established in 1833 by Horatio David shepherd, with Horace Greeley and Francis V. Stoney as partners, printers and publishers. This was the pioneer newspaper of the one cent press; though it lasted no longer then four weeks. The "Sun" was next established in the same year by Benjamin H. Day, who, in his prospectus, promised to publish all the news of the day at the price of one cent per copy, or three dollars a year. The first number was folio of twelve columns with about ten inches to the column--its contents being largely confined to brief accounts of local events. The success of the "Sun" led to the establishment of a number of other one cent newspapers, so that by 1835 the dailies of New York consisted of six one-cent evening papers, ands five one-cent morning newspapers, twelve in all.
"New York Herald's" Early Success.--The first number of the "New York Morning Herald," which for many years was a rival of the "Sun" for the support of the masses, was issued on May 6, 1835. It was originally started as a one-cent sheet by its editor and projector, James Gordon Bennett, the elder. It was at first a four-page paper, twenty-four by thirty inches, and therefore not much larger than the newspaper issued before the Revolution. It contained four columns to the page, four of the sixteen columns being devoted to advertisements, at the rate of thirty dollars per year per square of sixteen lines, or fifty cents for one insertion per square. In the editorial of the first number, in which was defined the future policy of the paper, Mr. Bennett announced his intention of printing an independent paper for the masses, quoting at the same time the following passages from the mouth of Ophelia, in "Hamlet," (Act IV): "We know what we are, but not what we may be" He closed by saying that "there are in this city at least 150,000 persons who glance over one or more newspapers every day; only 42,000 daily sheets are issued to supply them. We have plenty of room, therefore, without jostling neighbors, rivals, or friends, to pick up at least 30,000 or 40,000 for the 'Herald' and leave something for others who come after us. By furnishing a daily paper for the low price of three dollars per year, which maybe taken for any shorter period for the same rate, and making it at the same time equal to any of the high-priced papers, for intelligence, good taste, sagacity, and industry, we expect to reach this end."
A notice of a directory published at that time says that "the best large morning daily is the 'Courier and Enquirer,' and the bet small one, the 'Herald' to say nothing of the good old 'Star'." The first number of this diminutive "Herald" contained a column of European news from the steamer "St. Andrew," just arrived the evening previous from Cork, which brought "dates to April 8, nearly a month previous to the date of the publication of the 'Herald' "--which was regarded as a wonderful journalistic feat. There were two or three columns of city news; and the first and last pages were embellished with sketches, three poems, and other miscellaneous reading matter. Under the elder Bennett the "herald" was sometimes vulgar, but it was never dull. A participant in the "personal journalism" of the day, the editor figured in one or two cases in which the horsewhip was plied, but he always published vigorous and graphic descriptions of such episodes, and to the last, was a picturesque and forceful character, making for the progress of the city of his adoption. In thrift he remained a Scotchman.
The spectacular career of James Gordon Bennett II began with his father's death in 1872, when he succeeded to the control of the "Herald." An erratic youth and stormy manhood--he was then thirty-one years of age--were hints as to what would follow. His first constructive achievement was the creation of a foreign service extending to every part of the world which enabled him to score beat after beat on his less enterprising rivals. From 1874 to 1877 he had Henry M. Stanley searching for Livingstone, in Africa, and the "Herald" printed hundreds of columns about the expedition, which cost a fortune, but did not greatly please Dr. Livingston. In 1879 he fitted out the Jeannette Polar Expedition. With John W. Mackey he established the Mackey-Bennett Cable Company in 1883. From that time on he dictated the policies of the "Herald" by cable, making only occasional visits to New York, which were much dreaded by his staff, owing to the wholesale and often irrational dismissals which accompanied them. He founded a London edition, which failed, and a Paris edition which succeeded. During the latter part of the World War, it was the only newspaper published in Paris, for the other newspapers removed to Bordeaux when that port became the temporary capital. To the distress of his staff, Mr. Bennett refused to do so, but his temerity won back the affections of the French public and officials, which he had sometimes tried severely. He was intensely interested in sports, and had a contempt for criticism, which led to his abolishing the critical posts in his office, in name at least and causing reporters to be assigned to musical, theatrical and art events. For several years he barred Theodore Roosevelt's name from the "Herald." In 1899 he engaged William Marconi to transmit by wireless accounts of the American Cup Races between the "Columbia" and Sir Thomas Lipton's first "Shamrock." In October, 1906, he used the wireless to broadcast news of the World Series of baseball games, and in January, 1917, he installed in the "Herald" office wireless round the world ship news service. Always he was a yachtsman. In 1866 he won the race from Sandy Hook to the Isle of Wight with the "Henrietta," and in later life his "Lysistrara," requiring a crew of nearly 100 men, was constantly in commission. He once refused $15,000,000 for the "Herald," and it is a matter of court record that for a time the paper yielded a net profit of $1,000,000 a year. When he died on January 17, 1917, the "Herald" was heavily in debt. Frank A. Munsey bought it for $1,000,000 in cash and $3,000,000 in notes. In 1927 the estate showed assets of a trifle over $3,500,000, heavily burdened by annuities. Under his will this residue will eventually be devoted to the "James Gordon Bennett Memorial Home for New York Journalists." Under the proprietorship of Frank A. Munsey, the "Herald" continued o shrink in prestige and importance until its sale to the "Tribune." The New York "Evening Telegram" came into being as an afternoon edition of the "Herald" in the nineties, and as it production cost almost nothing, for it utilized news and composition paid for the "Herald," was profitable almost from the start. But it did not please Mr. Bennett, who one day cabled from Paris an order to discontinue its publication. For once the entire staff protested, and Mr. Bennett magnanimously rescinded his order and permitted it to live. In 1915, when the "Herald" was being published at a loss with a circulation of 109,000, the "Evening Telegram" with a circulation of 200,000 was earning enough money to pay the expenses of both. In that same year, the "Evening Mail" had a circulation of 140,000. This paper had absorbed the "Evening Express," which dated from 1836, and the "Daily Advertiser," and after being conducted by Colonel Elliott F. Shepard as the "Mail and Express," supported the fortunes of Colonel Roosevelt under the ownership of George W. Perkins, and Kaiser Wilhelm II under Dr. E. A. Rumely. Uniting it with the "Evening Telegram," Mr. Munsey left the publication of its own devices, and in 1927 the "Telegram's" circulation was 207,000By this time the Scripps-Howard interest, successors to the Scripps-MacRae League, and owner of a chain of newspapers, felt the need of a newspaper in New York City, and purchased the "Evening Mail" from the Munsey estate. The Associated Press franchise, upon which Munsey had placed great value, was discarded, not sold, and the service of the Untied Press substituted. Roy Wilson Howard, chairman of the board of the Scripps-Howard papers, and also head of the United press and the Newspaper Enterprise Association, announced that the "Evening Mail" would be governed by the liberal policies reflected in other newspapers owned by his organization.
The History of New York State, Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc., 1927
This book is owned by Pam Rietsch and is a part of the Mardos Memorial Library
Transcribed by Holice B. Young
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