of the State Normal School
By Holice, Pam, and Deb
Extra special thanks to Holice B. Young for transcribing book. The excellent work she does continues to help many researchers! Thanks also, to Pam Rietsch, for sharing her books with genealogists!
REBUILDING THE NORMAL SCHOOL.
Theodore Roosevelt "bolted" the national convention of the Republican party in 1912 and placed himself at the head of the new "progressive" or "bull moose" party. Chosen as the standard bearer of this new organization in the campaign of 1912, he attracted to his camp millions of the voters of the country and upset political calculations generally. Although he could not be elected president, he succeeded in drawing away from the "regular" republican candidate, William Howard Taft, enough votes to insure the election of Woodrow Wilson to the presidency on the Democratic ticket. Unknowingly, he helped to make an interesting chapter in the history of the State Normal School at Cheney.
Three candidates for the governorship of Washington were in the field in 1912. M. E. Hay, who had succeeded to the governorship upon the death of Governor Samuel g. Cosgrove, was the choice of the regular Republicans. Robert T. Hodge was the Progressive Republican candidate, and Judge W. W. Black of Everett, was nominated by the Democrats. Judge Black was declared ineligible, however, and his place on the ticket was taken by Ernest Lister of Tacoma. Owing to the personal popularity of Roosevelt in the Northwest, the State of Washington "went progressive" in the national election, but votes were so divided between Hay and Hodge that Lister was elected governor. There was disappointment in Cheney when the news came that Hay was defeated, for he had promised his support to a measure which would provide for the rebuilding of the Normal School. It was feared that Governor Lister who had been identified with the Rogers administration, would not be friendly toward the school at Cheney.
Not many weeks after the burning of the Normal School a movement got under way to elect W. J. Sutton, who had served the institution well on many former occasions, state senator from the Fifth District. Mr. Sutton became a candidate on the "regular" Republican ticket and succeeded in winning the elections. Upon his influence and previous experience the hope of the Normal School was fastened.
When the senate of the thirteenth session of the state legislature convened, and committees were appointed, Senator Sutton was given the chairmanship of the committee on educational institutions. The headship of this committee would enable him to use his influence to obtain favorable reports on bills affecting the institutions of higher learning. Louis F. Hart, then lieutenant-governor, who appointed the committees of the senate, was decidedly friendly toward the Normal School of Cheney.
True to the promise he has made to the people of Cheney several months before, Governor M. E. Hay, in his farewell address to the joint session of the legislature, January 15, 1913, recommended the rebuilding of the Normal School. He said:
"The administration building at the Cheney Normal School was destroyed by fire last June (April). Owing to the efforts and self-sacrifice of the citizens of that city, temporary arrangements have been provided so that the work of the school has been but little interrupted. An appropriation should be made as early as possible for the erection of a new administration building and the purchase of library apparatus, etc. The board of trustees of that institution should be directed to construct a fireproof building. This policy should be adopted by the state in the construction of all permanent buildings."
At a joint session of the legislature on the afternoon of the same day Governor Ernest Lister delivered his message to the legislature. As had been anticipated, his attitude on the normal-school question harmonized with the point of view of Governor Rogers. He favored "consolidation" which meant that he would not approve the rebuilding of the Normal School at Cheney. Said the new governor:
"The burning of the administration building of the State Normal School at Cheney last year makes it necessary for your honorable body to determine the question of rebuilding the institution. The state has fully established its policy in regard to state colleges by regularly appropriating large sums to the State University and the Washington State College. In regard to the normal schools, many think that a mistake has been made in the past by maintaining so many of these institutions. Other states with populations double and treble that of Washington have adopted the policy of supporting two or three State educational institution and then maintaining those institutions at a high standard. Washington has been maintaining five educational institutions. The legislature at the last session appropriated approximately $1,700,000 to that support. According to the reports submitted, approximately $2,987,000, or almost $3,000,000, is asked for the coming biennium.
"Is it wise to maintain duplicate buildings and equipment for three state normal schools, none of which can be raised to a high standard without even much larger appropriations than the amounts now asked, if one first-class normal school would serve the needs of the state? Which is the better business policy, for the state to maintain five educational institutions of ordinary rank, or three educational institutions, a diploma from any of which would be of real value in the educational world? The buildings and grounds of the normal schools which might be abolished by such a change of policy could be taken over for other purposes. Normal courses might be added at the State University and the Washington State College if thought advantageous.
"If there be strong opposition to the adoption of such a policy from residents of communities where normal school would be discontinued, it should be remembered that the state's policy in this matter should be determined from the standpoint of the educational interests of the state and the interest of the people of the entire state, rather than of particular communities.
The ghosts of two previous votes stalked before the eyes of the friends of the Eastern Washington Normal School when the governor's attitude became known. The determination of '93 and '98 expressed itself again. On the
morning of January 17, the Spokesman-Review, in its leading editorial, took issue with the governor and urged the rebuilding of the Normal School. The same day Edward Perry, special correspondent of the Spokesman-Review in Olympia, wired his newspaper as follows:
"At a caucus of Eastern Washington legislators this afternoon the elephant and the bull moose lay down together and pledged support to an appropriation for rebuilding the Cheney Normal School. No amount was agreed upon, but the estimated cost was $330,000. The bill will be introduced separately from the general institution bill.
"Governor Lister caused advocates of the Normal School at Cheney considerable apprehension by questioning the wisdom of spending money on widely separate institutions. Eastern Washington members of both houses are confident that the Cheney school will be rebuilt. Senator W, J, Sutton of Cheney conferred for a time with the governor, and his plea for rebuilding seemed to carry much weight."
The Spokane Chamber of Commerce also took up the case of the Normal School. January 29, 1913, the Spokesman-Review published the following resolution, passed by the trustees of the Chamber of Commerce and also by that organization as a body: "The perpetuation of the Normal School at Cheney is of vital interest to the Inland Empire. There is a movement to discontinue the school. The legislature, therefore, is requested to appropriate such sum as may be necessary to erect a suitable building or buildings necessary for the progress and development of this institution. We strongly protest against any action which would impair the efficiency of the institution or discontinue it."
Advices from Olympia continued favorable to the early passage of the Normal School bill, and testimonials to the efficient work of the institution came from numerous quarters. The report of the state bureau of inspection, covering the affairs of the institution from April 24, 1912, to December 7, 1912, showed that the land and the other property owned by the state in Cheney amounted to $189,351.65, a considerable sum to abandon.
Meantime bills providing for an appropriation for rebuilding the Normal School had been introduced in the senate and in the house. Senate Bill No. 95, "An act making an appropriation for the construction of an administration building for the State Normal School at Cheney, Washington, and for furnishings and equipment therefore," was introduced on January 21 by Senators Hutchinson, Sutton, Shaefer, Rosenhaupt, Phipps, Wende, Jackson, McCoy, Davis, Chappell, Espy, McGuire, Campbell, Jensen, Bethel, Stephens and Cotter. The bill was read the first time and, on motion of Senator Sutton, the rules were suspended, the bill was read the second time by title, ordered printed and referred to the committee on appropriations. No further action was taken."
House Bill No. 164, identical to Senate Bill No. 95, was introduced on January 22, 1913, by Representative A. M. Stevens of Spokane, and others, and referred to the committee on appropriations. On the nineteenth day of the session the bill was reported tot he house "do pass as amended." The bill was read the second time and passed to third reading and ordered engrossed. The amendment of the committees reduced the amount of the appropriation contemplated by the bill from $330,000 to $300,000. The report by J. H. Davis, chairman; B. B. Horrigan, George McCoy, J. A. Mapes, E. A.
Sims, W. D. Smith, A. M. Stevens, W. V. Wells, Victor Zednick, J. W. Brislawn, E. K. Brown, V. J. Capron, J. R. Catlin, W. T. Christensen, L. W. Field, D. E. Gilkey, G. H. Greenbank, and Jens Jensen."
On February 4, 1913, the bill was read the third time, placed on final passage and passed the house by the following vote: yeas, 82; nays, 7; absent or not voting, 8. The rules were suspended and the bill was transmitted immediately to the Senate.
House Bill No. 164 was read in the senate the first time on February 4, and, on motion of Senator Hutchinson, the rules were suspended, the bill was read the second time by title and referred to the committee on appropriations, consisting of D. S. Troy, chairman; A. W. Anderson, E. L. French, Ed Brown, D. Landon, George U. Piper, R. A. Hutchinson, P. H. Carlyon, and D. A. Scott. The committee at once recommended that the bill be placed on general file. The report was adopted and, on motion of Senator Sutton, the rules were suspended and H. B. No. 164 placed at the head of the calendar for the day. The bill was read the third time. The senate resolved itself into a committee of the whole, considered the bill and reported back with the recommendation that it "do pass." Motion for call of the senate failed. Roll call on the passage of the bill resulted as follows: yeas, 37; nays, 2; absent or not voting, 3.
Governor Lister, whose opinion with respect to the normal schools of the state had not changed since he delivered his first message to the legislature, vetoed the bill on February 14, 1913. It was a decidedly unwelcome Valentine gift tot he people of Cheney and Eastern Washington. "My views regarding this subject have been well known to all members of the legislature since I assumed the duties of my office," said the governor. "While it has been under consideration by your honorable body, this department has made no effort whatever to change the opinion of a single member of the legislature or influence his or her vote on the subject. The responsibility is now upon your shoulders. In the further consideration by your honorable body of this bill, I sincerely hope that each and every member will consider it strictly upon its merits, and the matter of influence, or trade of votes, will not enter into its consideration. I regret exceedingly that my judgment in this matter dies not coincide with the views of the legislature; yet, entertaining these objections to the bill, I feel it my duty to disapprove it and return it to your honorable body for such action as you may deem advisable."
Friends of the Normal School refused to accept the veto of the governor as final. Realizing that the bill had passed both houses of the legislature by more than a two-thirds majority, some resentment was felt that the governor had dared to veto it. furthermore, assuming that each member if the legislature had voted his convictions in the first instance, and would continue to do so, there appeared no reason why the measure should not be passed notwithstanding the disapproval of the governor.
Newspapers of Eastern Washington, following the lead of the Spokesman-Review, once more came to the support of the Normal School with splendid editorial expressions of the worth of the institution and with almost a unanimous voice of criticism of the governor for his veto. The Spokesman-Review
contended that the governor had advanced no good reason for the veto. On February 18, 1913, it devoted one editorial to an attack upon the "one-normal" idea that had been fixed so firmly in the mind of Governor Rogers. Educators of the state, by letters addressed to members of the legislature, as well as by resolutions passed in convention, worked in behalf of the institution.
From the day of the veto of House Bill No. 164, however, Senator Sutton and Charles P. Lund, who was in Olympia in the interest of the institution, insisted that the measure, if repassed, must get through "on its merits." Trading for votes, they declared, was farthest from their thoughts. Senator Sutton, ina conversation with the present writer nearly ten years later, said that several trading offers were presented to him, one of which was to abolish the State Normal School at Ellensburg, and to rebuilt the Cheney institution, but he refused to consider them.
On February 24, 1913, Governor Lister vetoed the 1.5 mills state road levy bill. Strange though it may seem, this veto has a very important bearing upon the repassage of the Normal School bill. West-side members were as anxious to put the road levy through as were members of the East-side delegation to pass the Normal School bill. Hence the close relationship between these two measures.
Edward Perry wired the Spokesman-Review from Olympia on February 24, that the two bills "would go over or under together," regardless of the agreement. The road bill which the governor had vetoed was House Bill No. 339, which increased the public highway levy from one-half mill to one and one-half mills. That bill, together with House Bill 379, which provided for two and one-half mills for the permanent highway fund, would make a total road levy of four mills, which, the governor contended, was too much. He suggested one mill for public highway and one and one-half mills for permanent highways.
Both vetoed measures came up for consideration in the house on February 25, when an effort was made to pass them over the veto of the governor. The result was disastrous, and once again the Normal School reposed on the knees of the gods. Of that eventful day Edward Perry telegraphed the Spokesman-Review as follows: "After passing over Governor Lister's veto today, by a vote of seventy-seven to sixteen, the Cheney Normal School appropriation emerged into the closest jeopardy of its course through failure of the house, by a vote of sixty-one to thirty-three, to override the state road levy vote. Tonight the situation is extremely delicate as regards the Cheney School. By force of circumstances both bills are now bound inseparably together. Late tonight enough strength had been mustered to bring the normal and road bills back to the house for reconsideration under an amendment of the rules. Once more before the house, the votes will either be returned to the rules committee or placed again on roll call, disposition on sentiment displayed by preliminary balloting. In the rules committee they will likely rest until it is further demonstrated to what lengths the governor intends to go with his program.
"In spite of favorable action in the house, a senate club is swinging over the normal bill that can be removed, it is claimed, only by passing the toad bill. There support of the one and one-half mills levy has swung into what is
regarded as a solid formation. If the veto holds good against that, it will stand against the normal.
"In the house, if reconsideration fails to uphold the road levy, it probably will not fail to uphold the governor against the normal. The West-Side strength is just as determined to secure passage of the state road law as East-Side members are anxious to make good the normal appropriations. Both sections have divisions in their own camps to deal with, and each division increases complications without affording an open chance for compromise."
On February 26, despite the objections of many that the proceeding was highly irregular, the house voted to expunge he record of the votes on the Normal bill and the road bill. Both bills were than returned to the rules committee to the house. Officially, everything stood as it had immediately following the governor's veto.
Meantime, on February 27, Governor Lister vetoed the item of $195,000 for the support of the Normal School that had been included in the general appropriation bill. Explaining the veto of this item, the governor said: "I had hoped that before the time arrived for me to deliver this bill to you the senate would have acted upon my veto of the appropriation for school buildings at Cheney, which vote (veto) the house did not sustain. Had the action of the senate been the same as the house, I would have approved this item of $195,000 for the maintenance of the Cheney Normal School. Inasmuch as no action has yet been taken by the senate along this line, I hand the bill to you with my veto on these items, the total amount of which is $195,000."
It is evident from the foregoing remarks, written after the house had voted to expunge the record, that the governor did not hold the action of the house valid. It was his contention, therefore, that the road bill was dead and that the Normal bill had been passed over his veto by the house and was ready for transmittal to the senate.
The following day, February 28, it was reported in Olympia that a compromise had been effected on the road bill and the Normal appropriations bill. The agreement supposed to have been reached provided for a road levy of one and one-half mills for the first year and one mill for each year thereafter. On March 8 Governor Lister vetoed the compromise road bill, Senate Bill 459, and read his veto message in person to the legislature.
Two days later came another report from the state capitol. Writing under date of March 10 to the Spokesman-Review, Edward Perry declared: "It is officially announced tonight that a new state roads bill and the Cheney Normal veto will come on the house calendar tomorrow. Supporters of the Normal appropriation are certain of its passage, together with the vetoed $195,000 appropriation. Conference committees tonight agreed on the permanent highway levy of one and one-fourth mills. Requirements that work be done by contract on the 'lump sum' system by units were restored. The bill goes to the governor tomorrow. He favors it."
On the fifty-eighth day of the session, March 11, the matter of the governor's veto of House Bill No. 164 came up for reconsideration in the house. The roll was called and the bill passed the house despite the governor's veto; yeas, seventy-four; nays, sixteen; absent or not voting, seven. The bill was
transmitted to the senate immediately and, on motion of Senator Sutton, it was made a special order of business. Roll was called and the bill passed the senate; yeas, thirty; nays, eight; absent or not voting, four. Once more the Normal School had won its fight for life.
Representative D. H. Rowland of Pierce County refused to vote on the bill, giving his reasons as follows: "When my name is called I shall not vote on H. B. 164 for the following reasons: first, as a protest against what I consider the unlawful and unconstitutional act of the majority in destroying the veto; second, because the action now proposed to be taken is in effect a reconsideration of a reconsideration of a vetoed bill, and is therefore not only an illegal act and contrary to the rules of the house, but it is an act clearly in defiance of the constitution itself. I an not conscientiously be a party to such ruthless methods. The attempted destruction by the house of its own records by majority vote, and thereby overruling the will of two-thirds of the house expressed when it passed this bill over the governor's veto, is no less culpable than if a court should burn its records to avoid the effect of a judgment it had rendered. Either act should merit the condemnation of law-abiding citizens."
The appropriation for the maintenance of the Normal School, amounting to $195,000, which had also been vetoed by the governor, came up in the house for reconsideration on March 11. This appropriation was a part of House bill No. 525. It was passed over the governor's veto by the following vote: yeas, eighty-six; nays, two; absent or not voting, nine. Three Senators were absent.
Agreement on the road levy removed the sword which had dangled over the head of the Normal appropriation for many days. "Just how easily the Cheney Normal building appropriation could win over the governor's veto, once divorced from the roads tangle, was demonstrated today," wrote Edward Perry on March 11. "The house overcame the $300,000 building appropriation veto by a vote of seventy-five (seventy-four) to sixteen, with five absent. An almost unanimous house vote was recorded to pass over the governor's veto the Cheney Normal maintenance bill of $195,000"
News that the Normal School bills had been passed over the veto of the governor reached Cheney at 6:45 on Tuesday evening March 11. The ringing of the fire bell announced the event to the community, and the town fairly went wild. Soon a large number of people had gathered on First Street, and shouts whistles and the barking of dogs filled the evening air. The pent-up feelings of the people were at last let loose. Everybody did the first thing that suggested itself, and scarcely anybody realized what his neighbor was doing. A meeting was held in the auditorium of the Normal School, and afterwards a group of Normal students, contrary to regulations, went to the I. O. O. F. hall for a dance. The domestic science department of the school worked until
nearly morning making candy to be sent to the various members of the legislature. It was a time of rejoicing and unwonted activity in Cheney.
For weeks the attention of Cheney folk had been fastened upon the state capital. Fluctuations in the news which came out of Olympia built up hopes one day and cast them down the next. The first passage of the bill through the legislature was followed with enthusiasm, and it was scarcely believed by Cheney people that the governor would veto the measure. Students declared holidays to celebrate the passage of the bill by the house and also by the senate. They marched through the Normal building, through the high school, and through the streets of the town. Then came the governor's veto, followed by a month of anxious waiting. Days of anxiety were ahead for the faculty, who knew not how long they would stay in Cheney; for the class of 1813, who hoped to be graduated in May; for the people of the town, whose property would be worth little if the Normal School were discontinued. Many of the citizens of Cheney, who were large property holders, were in Olympia during the closing days of the session. The passage of the Normal bill over the governor's veto in 1913 was one of the great events in the history of Cheney.
Preparations were soon under way in Cheney for an elaborate reception for people of Cheney, members of the legislature, and business men of Spokane who had assisted in securing the appropriations at Olympia. Word was also received that Governor Lister, like his predecessors who had vetoed bills for the maintenance of the Normal School, was planning to visit the institution. The Cheney Free Press, speaking editorially of the approaching visit of the governor, said on March 14:
"The feeling has been prevalent at Olympia during the last three or four weeks that Mr. Lister would not at all be displeased to see both houses override his veto. The consensus of opinion seems to be the Mr. Lister is gradually realizing that well-deserving educational institutions, particularly the Cheney Normal School, are not to be tampered with even if the great principle of economy is at stake. Governor Lister is to be commended for putting an efficient check on an extravagant legislature, and we venture to predict that in due course of time he will become a warm and loyal friend of our institution. It goes without saying that the funds allotted to us will be wisely and economically handled under his won personal supervision. We must not forget that Mr. Lister will be the executive of this state for four years to come, and we hope the local people will give him a fitting and dignified reception."
The banquet in honor of the state legislature and members of the Spokane Chamber of commerce, which was held in the Cheney congregational Church on March 27, was, according to the Cheney Free Press, "the biggest thing of the kind ever pulled off in Cheney." Two hundred and fifty persons attended, among the number being C. P. Lund, Charles Hebberd, Ex-Governor Hay, George Reed, Charles E. Myers, H. C. Sampson, and R. A. Hutchinson. C. D. martin, a graduate of the Normal School, presided as toast master.
Talks were made by Mr. Lund, Mr. Hebberd, Mr. Hay, Mr. reed, Mr. Myers, Mr. Hutchinson, Senator Sutton, and President Showalter. All of them referred to the trials of the institution in years gone b y and expressed best wishes for the years to come. Ex-Governor Hay commended the people of Cheney for the assistance given the Normal School following the fire. Senator Sutton complimented President Showalter for his skillful presentation of the
case of the Normal School in Olympia. He also presented to Mrs. J. L. Ankrom the fountain pen used by Lieutenant Governor Louis P. Hart to sign the Normal appropriations bill. President Showalter , the last speaker, declared that he would endeavor to "return one hundred cents on the dollar for all money that was spent."
Governor Lister visited Cheney in the spring of 1913 and was given a cordial reception. In an address to the faculty students, and townspeople from the steps of the Training School building, the governor declared that he had been opposed to rebuilding the Normal School, but, inasmuch as the legislature had seen fit to override his veto, it was his intention to build an institution in Cheney that would be an object of pride to the people of the state. He also announced that the new board of trustees, to be appointed soon, would include a woman member. The new board was composed of Mrs. Mary A. Monroe, V. T., Tustin, and C. A. McLean, all of Spokane. Mrs. Monroe was made chairman of the board. This board was not changed until 1920, when Governor Louis F. Hart appointed Charles E. Myers of Davenport as successor to Mr. McLean.
Little time was lost in starting the work of rebuilding the Normal School. After the reorganization of the board was completed, plans for the new administration building were presented, and on December 30, 1913, the main contract was let to John H. Huetter of Spokane for $241,224. On January 9, 1914, contracts for heating, ventilation, wiring and plumbing were let. The Ben Olsen Company of Tacoma was awarded the heating and the ventilating contract, the contract for wiring was given to Agutter & Co., of Seattle, and P. J. Coff of Spokane got the plumbing contract. Julius Zittel of Spokane was architect. The total of all contracts was well within the $300,000 appropriation.
The corner-stone of the administration building was laid on June 27, 1814, by W. J. Sutton, Grand Master of the Grand Masonic Lodge for Washington. Mr. Sutton was principal of the Normal School when the corner-stone of the old building was laid by Grand Master W. W. Witherspoon in 1895
On May 27, 1915, the administration building was accepted by the board of trustees, and classes were conducted in it that month. C. s. Kingston, vice president of the Normal School , conducted the first class in the new building. It was a class on sociology.
The contract for the construction of the Manual Arts building was let on April 23, 1915, to Alloway & Georg of Spokane for $12,295. The building was completed that year.
On June 17, 1915, the contract for the construction of Monroe Hall, dormitory for women, was let to Cheatham & Sons, of Spokane. The cost of the building, including plumbing, heating and wiring, was $50,000. Monroe Hall was named in honor of Mrs. Mary A. Monroe, president of the board of trustees. The hall was competed in 1916.
Contracts for remodeling and enlarging the heating, power, and pumping plant were let in 1917 to Pratt & Watson of Spokane for $16,500.
The Apache Club building and grounds, used at first as an annex to the women's dormitory, were bought by the Normal School on May 17, 1918, for $5,000. From March, 1921, to June, 1923, this building was used exclusively for men. During the summer of 1923, when the men's quarters were moved to Sutton hall, the building was again used for women students. It was sold in 1923 for $1,000 and was removed from the campus in August of that year.
In 1919 the legislators appropriated $75,000 for the erection of a new dormitory for women at Cheney. This sum, together with $25,000 available from other sources, was spent on Senior Hall, the second women's dormitory to be constructed. The contract for erecting this building was let to Fred Phair of Spokane. Sufficient money for the completion of the building was not available, and only the fist two floors were finished. Senior Hall was opened to students in 1920. A special appropriation of $22,000 for the completion of the third floor was made by the legislature of 1921, but it was vetoed by the governor.
Enlargement of the campus paralleled the growth of the plant. The new administration building was moved farther southeast, which gave it a more commanding position than the old building. This necessitated the closing of Sixth Street between D and F. streets, and at the Fifth Street entrance the main entrance to the campus, granite pillars were erected in 1815 by the Alumni Association. George e. Craig played a prominent part in obtaining money for the construction of these pillars.
In a memorandum prepared for the present writer, dated December 6, 1922, Mr. Craig said: "During the summer of 1913 there was considerable discussion among the old students; that is, among those who had been here previous to the fire, that a movement should be started to build some sort of memorial from the granite that had formed the first story of the old building. A number of students met, and I was asked to secure permission from the trustees to use the stone. The trustees readily agreed to give all that was needed and offered to place the stone wherever it was needed.
"The next year, at summer school, a committee, consisting of Mabel Ashenfelter, Myra Pannebaker, Mrs. Louise Anderson, Lowry Howard and myself, was appointed to launch the movement with vigor. Accordingly, an assembly of all summer school students was held, and rousing speeches were made in favor of the plan. At this meeting we secured some $750 in pledges, to be paid not later than December 14 of that year, (1914). We then arranged a circular and sent out an appeal to all of the alumni whose addresses we could get, asking for whatever pledge one might be able to make and suggesting that former student, who had been aided by the school in getting positions, endeavor to pledge at least five dollars. Within a few weeks we had secured the twelve hundred dollars and more.
"The committee then secured the services of an architect to draw the plans. The landscape gardener who was employed by the state was also consulted, and the final outcome of many meetings was a agreement to erect a set of primary and secondary pillars, with a bronze plate bearing some historical data to be placed on the pillars when completed. The site and the plan of the present pillars were then agreed upon.
The pillars were completed in time for the June commencement, 1915. About two hundred dollars of the amount raised was left, and it was decided to spend this in acquiring the two pieces of statuary which now stand at the entrance of the auditorium. These pieces arrived and were placed in position before the August Commencement, 1915.
"I have frequently heard questions asked regarding the history of the two cone-shaped granite pieces, placed on either wide of the main entrance to the administration building," said Mr. Craig. "These two stones were to cap the pillars when complete, and were at one time placed on the pillars, but the
lines being vertical on the cones and horizontal on the pillars, the beauty was marred and the massive effect spoiled. So they were removed and the present plan of broad cap substituted. The cones were then placed at the curved entrance to the administration building.
"The pillars, before dedication, were known as 'The Pillars of Hercules', but at the dedication they were named 'The Herculean Pillars.' I believe they represent the most enthusiastic and enduring gift of the students with in history of the institution.
In 1921 the school hospital, under the supervision of Dr. Clara M. Greenough, and Miss Katherine Dutting, was opened. It is maintained largely for the purpose of giving free first aid to students and as a student infirmary.
Improvement on the athletics field were also made in 1921 and extended considerably in the spring of 1923, at which time a new track was constructed.
Lack of men in the teaching profession, and especially the drifting of men from teaching into other lines of work during and after the war, has been regarded by President Showalter as one of the most pressing educational problems of the day. Realizing that the Normal School had not the accommodations to offer men, that it had to offer women, president Showalter conceived the idea of a dormitory for men, to be erected as a private enterprise at a cost of about $100,000. A plan for this building was drawn by Julius Zittel of Spokane.
Late in the summer of 1922, following the appointment of Charles P. Lund, of Spokane, as a trustee of the Normal School, the Cheney Building Company was organized for the purpose of erecting the dormitory. Officers were chosen as follows: C. D. Martin, president; Mayor N. A. Rolfe, vice President; F. L. Ratcliffe, secretary-treasurer; directors, Senator W. J. Sutton and R. H. Maccartney.
In September the campaign to sell bonds was launched, and within a very few days the amount had been oversubscribed several thousand dollars. The investment was recommended as sound by financial experts, and the small denominations in which bonds were issued, $100 and $500, made them attractive to the small investor. The plan for financing the dormitory, set forth in the prospectus issued by the company in September, 1922, follows:
"The Cheney Building company, mortgagor, Cheney, Washington, announces a $92,000 issue of seven per cent first mortgage gold bonds for the erection of a Men's Dormitory, housing one hundred and fifty students, at the
State Normal School, Cheney, Washington. The issue consists of serial coupon bonds in denominations of $500 and $100, due serially from two to ten years, with interest payable semi-annually. The bonds are dated September 1, 1922.
"The dormitory, as soon as completed, will be leased by the company to the trustees of the Normal School. The rental from this building, together with the income from the dormitories now in operation, is entirely adequate to meet the serial payments and the semi-annual interest on these bonds. The two dormitories now in operation have been constructed recently, house two hundred and thirty students, and being a large revenue which is entirely at the disposal of the trustees of the Normal School. The annual gross income from the three buildings will amount to approximately $100,000.
"The Men's Dormitory is being erected to meet the needs of the Normal School. The growth of the institution since the war has been rapid. Last year's attendance of regular students showed an increase of sixty per cent over the attendance of the preceding year. The school is organized on the four-quarter basis, and classes are conducted during eleven months of the year, so that the maximum of returns is obtained from the plant. During the four quarters of the school year, 1921-22 there were in attendance one thousand three hundred eighty-six students, representing twenty-eight counties of Washington and several other states.
"The State Normal School at Cheney can look forward to many years of steady growth. An awakened public conscience is demanding that the youth of the land be taught only by men and women of recognized ability, and on the normal schools the State of Washington has placed the responsibility of training an adequate corps of teachers for the elementary schools. Certification laws are being revised upward rather than downward, and increasing demands are being made on those who enter the profession. At present no person is eligible for admission to the teaching profession in Washington who has not had nine weeks of professional training above a high school course. The day is not far distant when one or two years of professional training above a high school course will be required for admission. Such a tendency not only insures better schools for the state, but also indicates a continued growth for the institutions which train teachers. The steady and continued growth of the State Normal School at Cheney will insure a maximum income from the buildings, which is to be used to pay the semi-annual interest and to meet the serial payments.
"Bonds are being issued in denominations of $100 for the benefit of the small investors. Few opportunities are offered small investors to obtain an income of seven per cent, payable semi-annually, on a conservative investment.
"These bonds are secured by a first mortgage on the dormitory building and by a pledge of ample income. Bankers and reputable business men and competent attorneys have adjudged them a safe and desirable investment. First mortgage bonds have always been favored as investments by careful individuals, bankers, and administrators of estates. The serial payments will reduce this loan rapidly, and each year, through increased security, the remaining bonds will become more desirable as an investment."
Contracts for the new dormitory, to be completed March 1, 1923, were let as follows:
General contract, F. E. Martin, $75,480.06; heating contract, W. J. Griffith Heating Company, $5,278; plumbing contract. M. Isbister Heating & Plumbing Company, $5,153; electric wiring, Doerr-Mitchell Electric Company,
$2075. A few miscellaneous items are not included in the above-mentioned contracts.
Although the building was not entirely completed, it was occupied by students during the summer quarter of 1923. It was formally dedicated on Friday evening, September 21, by Senator Sutton, who lighted the first fire in the fireplace. Preceding this ceremony a dinner, complimentary to Senator Sutton, was served in the dining room. A short program followed. President Henry Suzzallo of the University of Washington made the principal address. Vice President C. S. Kingston presided as toastmaster.
Mr. and Mrs. S. F. Shinkle, graduates of the Normal School, came to Cheney in June, 1923, to take charge of the new dormitory.
Sutton Hall is the name given to the new dormitory. It is named in honor of a man who has been associated, in some capacity or other, with the Normal School since its inception. This hall of residence will perpetuate the name of one who was a member of the faculty when the doors of the Normal School were first opened to student in 1890; who became principal and served in that capacity during five of the stormy years of the school's history; who went to Olympia as state senator in 1913, and, after one of the great legislative battles in the history of Washington, brought back to Cheney an appropriation for rebuilding the Normal School; a man who chief interest in life lies in obtaining for the boys and girls of Washington the fulfillment of a guarantee in the organic law of the commonwealth--equality of educational opportunity in the public schools of the state. It is eminently fitting, therefore, that the man whose efforts in behalf of the public school will add a new lustre to the pages of the educational history of Washington should have his name associated with a building which will serve as a home for young men who are preparing to become teachers in the public schools of the commonwealth.
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