of the State Normal School
By Holice, Pam, and Deb
Extra special thanks to Holice B. Young for transcribing book. The excellent work she does continues to help many researchers! Thanks also, to Pam Rietsch, for sharing her books with genealogists!
RECENT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT.
In anticipation of the subsequent growth of the educational institutions of Washington, the legislature of 1911, in addition to creating special levies for their support, made provision for later investigations into the needs of the several institution with a view to readjusting the tax. Section IV, of that act, being Chapter LXIX., Session Laws, 1911, reads, in part:
"After January 1, 1916, it shall be the duty of the governor, upon request of the president of any of the institutions of higher learning, to appoint a commission of five members to investigate reason for changing the levy herein provided for, and to report to him in time for action, if any is necessary, by the legislature in 1917."
The levy for the State Normal School at Cheney, in consequence of the investigation in 1916, was raised to .13 of a mill by the legislature of 1917, and again in 1921 it was increased to .159 of a mill. Growth in attendance and the additional courses which were being offered made necessary the increased financial support.
Difference among the Washington institutions of higher learning regarding the duplication of courses were taken to the state legislature in 1915. In Order to settle these differences, as well as to carry out the provisions of the act of 1911, under authority of which the millage tax was established, the legislature of 1915 authorized the appointment of a commission to make an exhaustive education survey of Washington. Senator W. J. Sutton of Cheney was made chairman of this commission.
Duties and powers of the commission, set forth in Chapter CXLII., Session Laws, 1915, were as follows: "There is hereby created a commission, consisting of six members, to be known as 'The Commission of Educational Survey of Washington,' and it shall e the duty of such commission to make a comprehensive survey of the organization and work of the University of Washington, the State College of Washington, and the State Normal Schools at Ellensburg, Cheney, and Bellingham, and a general survey of the public school system of the state, both urban and rural, elementary and secondary, and of the educational development and possibilities of the state, and to determine more definitely the purpose, sphere, and functions of the University, the State college, and the State Normal Schools, and the lines along which each should be encouraged to develop for the better service of the state. In the performance of its duties said commission shall have power to employ experts and to fix and authorize the payment of their compensations. Upon the completion of such survey, and on or before April 30, 1916, said commission shall make and file with the governor a report of its findings and recommendations, which report shall be published for general distribution throughout the state, and shall contain such recommendations to the legislature in regard to the enactment of amendment of the statutes relating to the several institutions as may be found advisable, including any necessary changes in the distribution of the millage tax
for the support of such institutions and such additional appropriations as the commission may deem advisable."
Section II, of the act specified that the members of the commission should be: Senator W. J. Sutton, chairman; E. E. Boner, A. H. Imus, Tom Brown, Charles Timblin, and Victor Zednick.
In the preparation of its report the commission, in February, 1918, sought the services of three educational experts: Samuel P. Capen, United States Bureau f Education; Harold W. Foght, United States Bureau of Education; and Alexander Inglis, assistant professor of education, Harvard University. Aided by the comprehensive report of the commission of experts, the legislature commission of the State of Washington compiled its report, which was dated April 27, 1916. Recommendations made by the experts were, in general accepted by the commission. The summarized reports of the two groups on the normal schools, inasmuch as they inspired much subsequent legislation, are given at length.
The experts recommended: "The restriction of the field of the State Normal Schools to the preparation of elementary teachers until all elementary schools are supplied with professionally trained teachers,
"The gradual increase of the entrance requirement to graduation from a four-year high school.
"The granting of no normal-school certificate after the summer session of 1921 for less than the completion of two years of normal-school work above high school graduation.
"The award, after the summer sessions of 1922, of a certificate for the completion of a two-year course and of the normal-school diplomas for the completion of a three-year course.
"The establishment of special summer and irregular course to enable teachers in service to fulfill the new academic and professional requirements.
"The provision by the normal-schools of differentiated courses of study of two and three years, respectively, above high-school graduation.
"The division of the state into extension service districts, one for each normal school, within which each normal school shall organize an extension service for the teachers of the state.
"The preparation of courses of study for the further training of teachers in service, the satisfactory completion of which shall be necessary to secure a permanent license to teach.
"The eventual establishment by the state of minimum salaries for teachers holding normal-school certificates and normal-school diplomas.
"The considerable enlargement of the courses and facilities at all three normal schools for the preparation of rural-school teachers.
"The organization of a fourth normal-school."
Recommendations of the legislative commission with respect to the normal schools were, in part, as follows:
"That requirements for matriculation in the normal schools be those states in the experts' report.
"That the normal schools develop a full three-year course in accordance with the suggestion of the experts.
"That they go on a full four-year basis, not earlier than 1920, provided they have in the meantime arrived at the point where a full four-year course in an accredited high school is required for entrance, and they have developed the three-year course referred to above on a basis to warrant the expenditure this fourth year of work will entail.
"That the state normal schools confine their training of teachers for the common schools strictly to the elementary grades, but that graduates of such institutions be allowed to teach the ninth grade when taught in connection with the upper elementary grades in strictly one-year high schools.
"That school superintendents an directors, in this class of schools where both the upper elementary grades and one year of high school work are taught, give preference to those applicants having both a university or state-college and a normal-school training.
"That, in consonance with the suggestion of the experts, the training of rural-school teachers through the normal schools be further developed, but that the question of location of model rural schools be left to the governing boards of the normal schools.
"That the normal schools devote much serious effort to provide teachers for rural communities.
"That the three-year course of study for the normal schools of the state, as suggested in the experts' report, be adopted.
"That, for the purpose of promoting a harmonious development along parallel lines, a joint meeting of the respective boards of trustees of the three normal schools be held annually.
"The commission believes that the needs of the state will soon require a fourth normal school, as suggested in the report of the experts, and recommends that one be established as soon as financial conditions of the state will justify.
"The commission is convinced of the advisability of having the normal schools engage in extension service, such as is suggested in the report of the experts. This work, however, conducted on a scale as broad as that suggested, would involve an expenditure which the state can not afford at the present time. After considering carefully the value and cost of teachers' institutes in this state, and after taking up this matter and the extension service question with the normal-school principals, a number of county superintendents, and other educators, the commission has come to the conclusion that this extension service would be of more value to the teachers of the state than are the institutes. In the light of this fact, and because money is not available for both, and also because of the value of this extension service, the commission recommends that the legislature provide by enactment for such service in lieu of the institute work nor prescribed by law.
" As the law now stands, the children attending the training department of the normal schools are not allowed to draw state school money per diem. This gives cause for much complaint by the people of the cities where the normal schools are located, who demand that this discrimination be removed, as they suffer financial loss by sending their children to the training departments. The commission, therefore, recommends that the law be changed to allow school money to be apportioned to the local district for all children attending normal-school training departments, s this provides a necessary service to the state at large."
"Phenomenal growth" of attendance at the institution of higher learning in Washington was noted by the commission, and for that reason it was urged that the millage tax be increased, the amount recommended for the State Normal Schools at Cheney being .1425 of a mill.
Recommendations of the legislative commission herein set forth, although not accepted in full, furnished the basis of many laws affecting public schools education which were enacted by the legislature of 1917. In addition to changing the millage tax, the legislature enacted laws which raised the entrance requirements of the normal schools, changed the plan of teacher certification so that attendance at a normal school would become a prerequisite to entrance to the teaching profession, provided for extension course for the normal schools, and authorized the state board of education to prepare courses of study for third and fourth-year work in the normal schools. It was specified that the fourth year of work should not be offered before 1920. No specific authority for granting degrees to students who completed the four years of work in the normal schools are conferred by the legislature upon any body.
Chapter X., Session Laws, 1917, laid the basis for teacher-training colleges in Washington. Section IX, of said act reads: "Requirements for entrance to the University of Washington shall not be less than graduation from a four-year accredited high school, except for person 21 years of age or over * * * This requirement may be waived as to summer school, shorter courses or extension work."
Other provision of the same act, relative to the normal-school courses of study, follows:
"Section X. The courses of instruction for the professional training of teachers for the elementary schools shall be offered and taught at the state normal schools only.
"Section XI. The state board of education shall prescribe courses of study for the state normal-schools as follows: Elementary courses of one and two years; advanced courses of three or of four years; a special advanced course of one year for graduates from college and universities: Provided, That the four-year advanced course shall not become operative before the year 1920. Upon satisfactory completion of any one of these courses a student shall be awarded an appropriate certificate or diplomas as follows: Upon the completion of a one-year elementary course, a normal-school elementary certificate may be issued which shall be valid in the elementary schools of the state for a period of two years. Upon the completion of a two-year elementary course a normal-school elementary diploma may be issued which shall be valid in the elementary schools of the state for a period of five years, and which may be renewed for a like period or a normal-school life diploma
issued in its stead: Provided, The holder shows professional growth and furnishes evidence of not less than twenty-four (24) months of successful teaching experience. Upon completion of the three-year advanced course a special normal-school diploma may be issued which shall be valid in the common schools of the state for a period of five years, and which may be renewed for a like period or a normal-school life diploma issued in its stead: Provided, The holder shows professional growth and furnished evidence of not less than twenty-four (24) months of successful teaching experience. Upon completion of the said four-year advanced course, an advanced special normal-school diploma may be issued which shall be valid in the common schools of the state for a period of five years, and which may be renewed for a like period or a normal-school diploma issued in its stead: Provided, The holder shows professional growth and furnished evidence of not less than twenty-four (24) months of successful teaching experience. Upon completion of a one-year advanced course for college and university graduates, a graduate normal-school diploma may be issued which shall be valid in the common schools of this state for a period of five years, and which may be renewed for a like period, or a normal-school life diploma issued in its stead on a proper showing of professional growth and evidence of not less than twenty-four (24) months of successful teaching experience."
Section XII, of the same act provided for the establishment of a joint board of higher curricula, composed of nine members, whose duties would be to "each year consider matters of efficiency and economy in the administration of the foregoing institutions and * * * make recommendations to the boards of regents and of trustees of the several institutions. They shall survey the several institutions, and report biennially to the governor, on or before December 15 next preceding the convening of the legislature, the courses of study pursued in each institution, and the detailed cost per student of operating and maintaining the various courses of study. They shall report such other matters as said joint board may deem necessary."
The personnel of the joint board of higher curricula was to consist of the president of the University of Washington, two regents of the university, the president of the State College of Washington, two regents of the college, the president of one of the normal schools, selected by the president of the several normal schools, and one trustee from each of the boards of the other two normal schools, selected by their respective boards of trustees. The members of the board of regents of the University of Washington and of the State College were to be selected y their respective boards of trustees. The selected member of the board were to hold office for two years.
Extension work under the direction of the normal schools of Washington was made necessary by Chapter XLVIII, Session Laws, 1917. According to the provision of this act the third-grade elementary certificate was abolished and the new requirements of applicants for the second-grade elementary certificate, in addition to passing a satisfactory examination in the specified subjects, included high school graduation and "satisfactory evidence of having had nine (9) weeks of professional training in an accredited institution in which elementary teachers are trained." AS another act provided that the right of training teachers for the elementary schools should be vested solely in the normal schools, as new burden was placed upon these institutions. Not only would this act, which became effective September 1, 1918, require the normal schools to provide the minimum of training for applicants for the state teachers' examinations, but it would also place upon them the obligation inasmuch as they were responsible for the training of teachers for the common school system, of bringing all teachers then in the profession to the minimum requirements of the new standard. For these reasons a law providing for normal-school extension courses was imperative.
Section V. of Chapter CXXVIII, Session Laws, 1917, declared that the purpose of the normal-school extension courses should be "to assist teachers who are now in the service and candidates for certificates to meet the new requirements in education without undue hardship." The act decreed that the extension work should be planned to supplement the previous training of the teachers who sought to take advantage of it, and that the subject matter should correspond to the regular normal-school courses.
Provision was made in the act, in order to prevent duplication, for the districting of the state by the state board of education. A definite assignment of extension territory was to be given to each normal school. Directors of normal-school extension work were required to cooperate with the several county superintendents."
As an incentive to teachers in service to take extension work, provision was made in the act for the substitution of extension courses for the regular institute when such work equaled the number of hours spent in the three-day teacher institute. County superintendents were authorized to expend institute funds to promote the extension work if it was accepted in lieu of the regular three-day institute.
Laws enacted by the legislature of 1917 marked a turning point in the history of the State Normal School at Cheney. The last trace of secondary school influence was removed by law. Thereafter the institution was free to turn its attention toward the development of a teachers' college. Ample provision was made for supporting the school, and permission was given to the institution to extend its influence throughout Eastern Washington by building up an extension department. Without the helpful legislation of 1917, it would be difficult to understand how the development of the Normal School could have gone on so rapidly.
No time was lost in starting the third year of work. A resolution passed by the state board of education on March 21, 1917, specified "that the functions of the three-year advanced course of study should be to provide additional and specialized training based upon the two-year elementary course." Other resolutions, defining and limiting the scope of the third-year work, were passed by the board the same day, as follows:
"That the three-year advanced course of study in the state normal schools be devised to afford advanced training for elementary schoolteachers in the following fields: kindergarten, primary grades, intermediate grades, seventh and eighth grades, rural schools, elementary grade supervision, and principalship of elementary schools.
"That, inasmuch as the course in the training of kindergarten teachers is already in operation at the Ellensburg State Normal School, and inasmuch as the demand for kindergarten teachers is limited, that such work be confined to the Ellensburg State Normal School exclusively.
"That the following statement of principles governing the formulations of the three-year advanced course for state normal schools be adopted:
advanced courses of the state normal schools be adopted:
academic plane, were passed by the state board of education in June 18, 1917. They were:
"That normal-school students shall be required to do one full year of residence study before being granted any certificate or diploma and that not more than one-fourth of any course leading to graduation shall be taken in extension courses.
"That any teacher in service in this state, who is the holder of a second grade or higher certificate under the old certification law, and who has taught at least five years, may be admitted on probation to the first year of the several state normal schools."
Passage of the foregoing resolutions made it difficult for any person with meager training or experience to enter the Normal School, and the residence requirement of one year before certification gave the faculty ample opportunity to observe a student's work and character before placing upon him the institution's stamp of approval. Although graduation from a four-year high
School was the goal toward which the Normal School was looking as a uniform requirement for admission, it was necessary that due cognizance be taken of those persons who entered the teaching profession when the standards were considerably lower, and who, through many years of practical experience, had acquired the equivalent of a high-school training. It was believed that the requirements for a second-grade certificate, plus five years of successful teaching, would qualify a person for normal-school work.
Third-year work was offered by the Normal School for the first time in 1917-18, and the first three-year diploma was awarded to Anna Quigley in the spring of 1918. At the close of the summer school, 1918, two more diplomas were awarded, to Mrs. J. DeForest Cline and to Isabelle Mallett.
Extension courses were also added to the curriculum of the Normal School in 1917. J. W. Hodge, former superintendent of school of Grays Harbor County, assumed his duties as director of the extension department in the autumn of 1917. The law authorizing the extension work for normal schools provided for the districting of the state by the state board of education. Accordingly, on September 23, 1917, the state board of education passed a resolution declaring that the extension territory of the State Normal School at Cheney should include the following counties: Adams, Asotin, Chelan, Columbia, Douglas, Ferry, Franklin, Garfield, Grant, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Okanogan, Spokane, Stevens Walla Walla and Whitman.
Mr. Hodge continued as director of the extension work for two years, resigning in the autumn of 1919 to become deputy superintendent of schools in Spokane County. during his term as director the department was built up so that four types of extension service was offered: (1) Weekly instructions to a group organized to pursue some branch of study; (2) correspondence courses, full credit being given in courses completed satisfactorily; (3) extension lectures, entertainment, and community service; (4) substitute for teachers' institute. The fourth type of service, which has not been generally adopted by the counties of Eastern Washington, was offered in accordance with the provisions of the law of 1917, which reads: "When agreed to by the county superintendent, and approved by the state superintendent of public instruction, extension work may be accepted from teachers in any county in lieu of the regular teachers' institute work."
Enrollment in the extension department was at flood tide in 1919-1920, during the period of teacher shortage and the filling in with teachers inadequately prepared. The total number enrolled that year for such work was two hundred thirty-five. The same year fifty-five were enrolled for correspondence work and sixty-three for correspondence courses.
January 29, 1919, the state board of education decreed that a student spending a year in residence to obtain a certificate or diploma should complete an assignment of not less than thirty-six hours of work, and that credit earned in extension or correspondence courses could not be accepted as any part of the minimum residence requirement.
Miss Josephine Fitzgerald, a former critic teacher in the Training School, took charge of the extension work when Mr. Hodge resigned. Among the special lines of service which she developed were visitation of schools and a course in
methods for teachers employed in school systems of the Inland Empire. Teachers who completed this method course were given normal-school credit.
In 1919 the legislature created a fourth normal school, which was located in Centralia. The creation of this school necessitated a new division of the state for purposes of extension work. On March 17, 1920, the state board of education assigned the following counties to the State Normal School at Cheney: Adams, Douglas, Ferry, Grant, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, Whitman, and Franklin. The board further resolved: "That there be added to the permanent territory of Ellensburg and Bellingham those counties in the Centralia territory now being served by Ellensburg and Bellingham until such time as the Centralia Normal School shall be ready to assume its obligations in the extension territory assigned."
The year 1917, important to the Normal School because it lifted the institution from the academic rut of the past, also brought to America the war from overseas. Scarcely had the Washington legislature of 1917 adjourned when President Wilson called the Congress of the United States into extraordinary session to listen to the reading of his war message. In the months that followed, months of feverish preparation and not a little anxiety, the Normal School played a creditable part. It attempted to carry on its work despite the exacting
demands of the war. Soon the public schools were depleted of teachers. Men enlisted for active service, and many women were enrolled in auxiliary war units. Students came in smaller numbers to the Normal School. Teachers were not being trained in sufficient numbers to take the place of those who were called to the colors. The cost of living rose apace, while the salaries of teachers remained stationary. Attracted by the high wages offered in commercial lines, hundreds of teachers withdrew from the profession. At the close of the war, and for many months thereafter, public school education was insolvent. It was a period in which the Normal School struggled against severe odds; when a great campaign was waged in behalf of the teaching professions. But when the economic slump came, late in 1920, a better day dawned for public school education. Salaries of teachers were increased, business languished, and a stream of students began once more to flow toward the Normal School. The stream continued to rise until the high-water mark was reached in the summer session of 1923, when an enrollment of one thousand sixty-four was recorded.
Despite the fact that few men, comparatively speaking, had attended the Normal School before the war, the war roster of the institution makes a creditable showing. Standing within the entrance to the administration building is a frame which contains the names of the men whom the institution "contributed" to the service.
During the war members of the faculty of the Normal School assisted in Liberty Loan campaigns, in Red Cross work, and in numerous educational campaigns which were authorized by the government. One member of the faculty, Albert Fertsch, after a course of instruction in the Officers' Training Camp at the Presidio, in the summer of 1918, was commissioned a second lieutenant of
infantry and placed in command of the Student Army Training Corps at Whitman College, Walla Walla. C. S. Kingston, vice president, spent the autumn of 1918 and the winter of 1918-1919 in welfare work in France. George E. Craig, instructor in rural education, spent several months in France as a member of the educational work of the Student Army Training Corps at the Normal School in the fall of 1918.
Miss Pearl Leonard, a graduate of the Normal School, spent several months in the canteen service in France. it is likely that other women who were graduated by the institution performed similar services during the war but there is no record of their work at the Normal School.
Morris J. Green, instructor in dramatic art, was engaged in Y. M. C. A. work during the war. At the signing of the armistice he was stationed at Fort Keogh, Mont. He did not return to the Normal School.
Several members of the faculty gave lectures before groups of soldiers, and others, thereby assisting in carrying out the educational program planned by the government. Camp Lewis, Washington, was one of the centers served in this manner.
The work of the Student Army Training Corps at the State Normal School at Cheney, from October, 1918, to January, 1919, is well covered ina report prepared by J. E. Buchanan, in January, 1919. Says the report:
"The Student Army Training Corps, formed in five hundred and sixteen collegiate institutions, into which one hundred and forty thousand men were inducted as soldiers, is a thing of the past. Complete demobilization of the one hundred men enrolled in the unit formed at the State Normal School at Cheney took place yesterday.
"The student Army Training Corps, organized October 1, 1918, had for its sole purpose to increase the military power of the country as effectively and as quickly as possible. It was a big undertaking on the part of the government to give training to the officers to be used in the 1919 military campaign, and, at the same time, continue their collegiate education. At the Cheney unit nearly half the men fell in the eighteen-year-old class. These men, along with the others of the unit, have received their discharge from the Army of the United States. The institution has therefore been the means of putting into the lives of these eighteen-year-old men the knowledge that they did absolutely all in their power to serve their country.
"The unit at Cheney was formed rather late because the faculty of the institution felt, after the regular enrollment had taken place in September, a small unit of soldiers could be handled by them without any additional cost to the state. Upon the authority of the trustees of the school, President N. D. Showalter, with the advice and help of the faculty, carefully organized the work and received not only the one hundred applicants for the collegiate section, but more than two hundred for the vocational section. However, the government organized only the collegiate section at Cheney.
"Citizens of Cheney selected a committee to take charge of housing the
students. The public school building was turned into a barracks. The basement of the Christian Church was used as a mess hall.
"The greatest difficulty that was overcome in connection with the corps was the influenza epidemic. It is greatly to the credit of the health department of the Normal School, under the direction of Miss alma Dobbs, who had charge of the barracks during the influenza period, and to the indefatigable energy of the acting health officer, Dr. Mell A. West, that there was not a single death, although seventy-five of the one hundred boys suffered from the influenza.
"Due to the late organization of the unit, a commanding officer was not sent here until October 11. At the time Lieutenant Fred L. Packard was placed in charge. For a considerable time he had sole charge of the unit, but eventually Lieutenant Terry A. Holbertson was send at adjutant.
"Early in his work Lieutenant Packard saw the possibility of organizing the girls into a military unit. One hundred girls took advantage of the offer, were organized as a unit, and received the daily drill.
"The government arranged a severe program for the boys in the S. A. T. C. The program called for fifty-three hours of educational work and military training from each boy per week, of which forty-two were given to school work. The government insisted upon two periods of supervised study for each period of education and prescribed a course of fourteen credits for the quarter.
"The organization arranged a specific program for men as officers as the different branches of the service, such as the infantry, artillery, air service, ordnance, and quartermaster service, engineer corps, signal corps, chemical warfare service, and motor transport service. Only two subjects were given to all men, namely, military law and practice, and war issues. The boys in the Cheney corps have been interested in a variety of subjects, ranging from cooking to surveying. Before the armistice virtually every boy was enrolled in French. After the armistice the government reorganized the work and three-fourth of the boys dropped the French and took up business courses or scientific courses leading to engineering or some other subject easily applied toward their later work.
"Inspectors, both military and educational, have complimented the school on the band which has been developed under the direction of J. DeForest Cline. This band was heard in Spokane when the Cheney S. A. T. C. unit marched in the peace parade. Mr. Cline has also had charge of the singing with the boys.
"That the unit was organized at the State Normal School at Cheney, the only normal school in the West with a unit, means that this institution was willing to do its part in serving the country. The government paid only for the board and care of the boys. The Normal School has gained nothing financially. The additional work has been done willingly by the faculty in every instance. The only payment that has come, or will come, is the realization on the part of the school authorities that they responded ina small way to the demand of the country."
Many of the boys in the S. A. T. C. unit returned to the Normal School for work. Several boys have been graduated by the institution.
Before the war was ended the normal schools of the state, as well as the University of Washington, had adopted the four quarter plan in lieu of the two-semester plan of organization. By making this change the school year of the Normal was increased by three weeks. Formerly the Normal School had offered work for two semesters of eighteen weeks each and a summer school of nine weeks during the calendar year. Am explanation for the change is found in
the Biennial Report of the Board of Trustees of the Normal School to Governor Lister, in 1918. Says the report:
"All institutions have been called upon by the national government to assist in meeting war emergencies, and we have been asked repeatedly to go on a war basis. In working out the matter it has been found by many colleges and institutions of higher learning that the quarter plan was better adapted to such times than the old pan of semester divisions. * * *
"In this institution the summer term for several years represented our largest enrollment. Teachers in service have chosen this time or advanced study in order that there may be no loss of the year's work in the public schools.
"It was at the request of the teachers that we increased the length of the summer session from six to nine weeks. At their request we have again increased the time to a full quarter of twelve weeks. Now a regular unit of schoolwork may be completed during the vacation time. The increasing call for teachers and the greater demand made upon normal schools seemed to fully warrant the extension of the school year. In making this change the trustees believe that it will be of sufficient advantage to warrant the slight increase of expense to the state. We also believe it to be an advantage as a peace movement as well as a war measure."
Authority for changing from the semester basis to the quarter basis is found ina solution passed by the state board of education on June 17, 1918, as follows: "That the basis for earning credits at the state normal schools of Washington be changed from a semester basis to quarter basis with the understanding that at least 60 hours of work shall be required for the granting of a credit." (That is, one hour a day, five days a week, for twelve weeks).
Two important changes took place in the Normal School in 1920. The scattered courses of study were completely reorganized and grouped in six departments, as follows: Applied Science and Arts, consisting of agriculture, fine arts, home economics, and manual arts; Education, consisting of education and health education; Language and Literature, consisting of English and all foreign languages; Music and Dramatic Art, consisting of music and public speaking; Science and Mathematics, consisting of chemistry, physics, geography, and mathematics; Social Science, consisting of history, commerce, and social science. (Recently Dramatic Arts has been taking from the Music department and added to Language and Literature.) Department heads were appointed as follows: Applied Sciences and Arts, J. W. Hungate; Education, Dr. Curtis Merriman; Language and Literature, Dr. Ralph E. Tieje; Music and Dramatic Art, J. DeForest Cline; Science and Mathematics, J. E. Buchanan; Social science, C. S. Kingston. Mr. cline resigned in 1922 to accept a position in the State Teachers' college at Greeley, Colo. Dr. Merriman resigned in 1923 to accept a position in the University of Wisconsin. Charles Elliott Fouser was elected head of the Music department in 1923.
The other important change in 1920 was the organization of the fourth year of work, authorized by the state board of education in conformity with the law of 1917. This work has been outlined satisfactorily, and several students have taken advantage of the full course, the first graduate receiving their diplomas in 1921. In the beginning of the advanced work, in 1918, prescribed courses wee outlined for third-year students, but when the catalogue for the fall quarter of 1922 was issued there were no such specifications. Concerning third-year work the catalogue of that year says: "Forty-eight credits are required in addition to the ninety-six credits of the two-year course. Since this course is designed to lead to special diplomas in music, household arts, manual training, etc., no prescribed course if outlined. The student will plan his work with the head of the department concerned. It should, however, be so planned that the year's work will fit into the general plan of the four-year course."
A total of one hundred and ninety-two credits is required for the completion of the four-year course of the Normal School. Thirty-seven credits are to be earned in Education, three credits in Expression, ten credits in English, five credits in Mathematics, ten credits in History and Social Science, ten credits in Science and Geography, and six credits in Music and Art. One hundred and eleven credits may be earned as electives, thirty-five such credits in a preferred department; thirty-five ina secondary department, and forty-one may be free electives.
Changes of considerable importance are now taking place in the Normal School. The institution is ina transitional period. It has ceased to be a "second-class" institution, and yet it has not become a college in the true sense
of the word. But it is beginning to take on some of the characteristics of collegiate life. Traditions are being developed. Interschool relations are being extended, in athletics and in debate, to include not only institutions in Washington, but institutions in other states of the Pacific Northwest. Athletic contests are now being scheduled with colleges of major rank.
Rapid increase in attendance has brought about many changes in the student body. The Associated Students has been formed, an organization which, in cooperation with a committee of the faculty, works out plans for many student activities. Clubs and societies, each designed to represent the interests of some group of students, are growing in number.
Each year more than one hundred students receive assistance from the Student Loan Fund. This fund, which consists of several thousand dollars, is administered by a committee of the faculty. Loans are made in nominal sums to deserving students, such loans to be repaid the following year with interest at the rate of six per cent per annum.
About twenty years ago (1903) an appointment committee of the faculty
was named to assist students in obtaining positions. Since that time the work of the committee has grown apace, increasing as the number of graduates of the school has increased. At present hundreds of teachers are being located each year in schools of the Inland Empire at virtually no cost to the teacher. In 1921-22 it was conservatively estimated that the work of the appointment committee saved teachers more then $10,000, the amount that normally would have been paid in commissions to teachers' agencies.
According to the two objective tests which should be used in measuring the worth of a teacher-training institution, the State Normal School at Cheney has succeeded. It has been receiving more calls for teachers than it has teachers to place. It also attracts students in large numbers from territory which might well be considered outside its jurisdiction. Students come from the remote corners of the Inland Empire, from far-away states, and occasionally from foreign countries. Particularly do they come in large numbers from the "panhandle" of Idaho and from Western Montana. They come from these regions, they say, (1) because of the "reputation of Cheney," and (20 because the Normal School is easy to access.
Looking a generation into the future, when the Columbia Basin Project of which men are now dreaming becomes a reality; when the semi-arid regions of the Big Bend become fertile and highly productive under the magic influence of water; when lands that are almost depopulated today will support thousand of prosperous, contended citizens; when the call will come for schools and teachers for the "new pioneers' of Eastern Washington; then may the State Normal School at Cheney hope to become one of the great teacher-training colleges of the United States. The Columbia Basin Project is a practical dream. With the new wealth, the new people, and the new activity which such a gigantic engineering project will bring to the Inland Empire, it is difficult to forecast to what lengths the growth and influence of the Normal School may extend.
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