Our Police Protectors
History of New York Police
Table of Contents

Online Edition by Holice and Debbie

 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I.--1609-1664--PRIMITIVE POLICE REGULATIONS

Charter Establishing the Dutch West India Company (1621)--Director-General Minuet's Council--Duties of the Schout-Fiscal--First Trace of a Penal or Police system (1623)--the island Assuming an Aspect of Permanent Settlement (1639)-- a Reason why Justice was Administered with Great Promptness--Erection of a Stadt Huys (1642)--Regulations for the Better Observance of the Sabbath--Establishment of a Burgher Guard (1643)--New Regulations Contemporaneous with the Arrival of Governor Stuyvesant--A Career of Reform--Ordinance Regulating the Sale of Liquor--Appointment of a Rattle Watch (1651)--The City Incorporated (1652)--the Police of the City Chiefly Centered ina Schout--Regulations of the Burgher Watch--Dirk Van Schillwyne, First High constable (16550--Organization of a Paid Rattle-Watch (1658)--Instruction for the Burgher Provost--Records of Court Cases--Capture of the Province by the British.

CHAPTER II--1664-1783--PERIOD OF BRITISH OCCUPANCY.

Obe Hendrick, First Constable under the English--Lighting the City by Night (1668)--Watchmen ordered to provide themselves with "a Lantern and a Stick of Firewood"--A Strict Police established throughout the City--Orders to be observed by the Constables' Watch, etc.--Rules governing the Watch--New Police Regulations (1684)--Dongan's Charter (1686)--First uniformed Policeman--Appointment of a Civil Watch--New City Hall, Wall Street--Modes of Punishment Inflicted on Criminals--Montgomeries Charter (1730)--"Insurrection and the Plot of Slaves"--Quakers exempt from serving on the Watch--Petitioning against a Military Watch--The Old jail--Bridewell--Occupation of the city by the British--Evacuation.

CHAPTER III--1783--1830--THE CITY OUTGROWING THE SYSTEM OF WATCHING

The City Divided into Seven Wards--New York described as "A Strange Mosaic of Different nations."--The Force and the Pay of the Men Increased--progress of the Police system very marked--Establishing a Police Office in the City Hall--Places of Confinement: State Prison, Penitentiary, Bridewell and Jail--the Watch doubled on account of the increase of Crime--Example of "A Good Arrest"--An Act Establishing Courts of Justices of the Peace and Assistant Justices--A law for better regulating of the City Watch--Petition for an Increase of Pay--A perfect Police of extreme Importance--Watchmen declared not eligible to act as Firemen--The Humane Society--Result of the Watch Committee's Investigation.

CHAPTER IV--1831--1844-PROGRESS AND REPEAL OF THE OLD WATCH SYSTEM

Watchmen Dissatisfied with their Pay--The Duty of Captains at the Breaking out of Fire--Inquiring into the Expediency of Re-organizing the police Department--Increasing the Number of Police Justices--"The Year of Riots."--Erection of New Watch-houses--The five Points--Necessity of an Increase in the Number of the Watch--First Attempts at Forming a Detective Squad--The Flour Riots--RE-organization of the Watch--Powers of the Mayor over the Watch Revoked and Transferred to the Common Council--The Mayor Re-invested with Supreme Police Authority--Mayor Morris' plan of Forming the Marshal into a Day Police--Report of the Special Committee in Relation to the Re-organization of the Watch--Battery Park in Former times--High Constable Hays--his Remarkable Career--How he Suppressed Crime and Scourged Criminals.

CHAPTER V--1844--1853--ORGANIZATION OF A MUNICIPAL POLICE

A turning Point in the System of Policing the City--The Old Watch Department Abolished--Establishment of a Day and Night Police--Chief Matsell--A Man Who Played an Important Part in Police Affairs--Harper's Police--First Effort to Introduce a Uniform--The New Stem Not Satisfactory--Changes in the Law--Astor Place Riot--Battery Park--Growing boldness of Criminals--Citizens Alarmed--the Whole Force Directed to Patrol Day and Might--Detailment of policemen a Growing Evil--Measures taken to Suppress it--Tables of Arrests.

CHAPTER VI.--1853-1857--APPOINTMENT OF A BOARD OF POLICE COMMISSIONERS

Ex-Superintendent Walling--His Long and Honorable Connection with the Department--Charter of 1853--Re-Organizing the Police Force--Tenure of Office to Remain during Good Behavior--The Recorder- City Judge and Mayor Appointed as a Commission--A Reserve Corps Established--An Improvement in the Efficiency of the Force--Introduction of a Police Uniform--Hostility thereto--The "Star" Police--Efforts made to Induce the Men to Wear the Uniform--Judgment Speedily Rendered in Trail Cases--Beneficial Effects--Appointment of a Drill Sergeant--Salaries Increased--Tables of Arrests--Sanitary Matters.

CHAPTER VII--1857--1863--THE METROPOLITAN POLICE DISTRICT

The Law Designating the Mayor, Recorder, and City Judge, Police Commissions, Repealed--Appointment of Five Commissioners--The Counties of New York, King, Westchester, and Richmond made to Comprise the New District--Opposition to the Change--A Year of Riots and Financial Failures--The Metropolitan Police District Act Declared to be Constitutional--The Municipal Police and the metropolitan Police Arrayed in Open Battle--Intervention of the Military--The Act Amended by making the District to Consist of the Counties of New York, Kings, Westchester, and Richmond, and the Towns of Newtown, Flushing and Jamaica--The Number of Commissioners Reduced to Three.

CHAPTER VIII--JULY 1863--SKETCH OF THE DRAFT RIOTS

The City in the Hands of a Frenzied Mob--An Emergency in which the Police Covered Themselves with Glory--Popular Discontent Growing out of a latent Sympathy with the Southern Cause--The Method Adopted for the Enforcement of the Draft not the Most Judicious One--Superintendent Kennedy's Arrangements in Anticipation of Trouble--Growing Desperation of the Mob--Firing of the Buildings in Which Provost marshal had His Office--Superintendent Kennedy Attacked and Brutally Beaten--His Miraculous Escape from Death--Commissioner Acton Assumes Command of the Force--his Energy and Promptitude more than a Match for the Mob, who Fight Furiously--The Rioters Beat Back the Police, but are in turn overcome and Routed--Clubs versus Stones, Bricks and Bullets--"By the Right Flank, Company Front, Double Quick, Charge!"--Mob Desperation and Police Heroism--"Up Guards, and at 'em!"--Action of the Military--End of the First Day's Fighting.

CHAPTER IX--JULY 1863--SUPPRESSION OF THE DRAFT RIOTS

The City Saved from Pillage and Arson--A Defiant and Unterrified Mob--Negroes hanged from Lamp-posts and Their Bodies Burned--Station Houses and Private Dwellings Fired and Sacked--Stones, Bricks, and other Missiles Showered on the Heads of Policemen from the Housetops--Police Retaliation--Arrival of the Military--Col. O'Brien's Frightful Death--The Battle on Second Avenue and Twenty-first Street--The Mob Taught some Severe Lessons--Erecting Barricades--Fired upon by the Troops--The Police Ply Their Clubs on the Heads of Rioters with Unbounded Liberality--Children from the Colored Orphan Asylum Protected by the Police--Hard Hand-to-Hand Fighting--Backbone of the Riot Broken--A Reign of Mob law Averted--Valuable Services performed by the Detective Force and Telegraph Bureau--Suppression of the Riot--The Board of Police issue a Congratulatory Address to the Force--Governor Seymour bears Willing and Appreciative Testimony to the Gallant Services Performed by the Police--Arraignment and Conviction of Rioters.

CHAPTER X--1864--1866-THE METROPOLITAN POLICE DISTRICT

Organizers of Police Victory--Acton, Bergen, Hawley, Carpenter, Leonard, etc.--The Law of 1864--Establishment of the House of Detention--Boundaries of the Metropolitan Police District--Division Commands--Uniform of the Metropolitan Police--Appropriations for the Building and Repairing of Station Houses--A marked Tendency to Crimes of Violence towards the person--List of Policemen who were Killed or Wounded at the Hands of Desperate Ruffians--President Acton Favors the Passage of a Law rendering it a Crime to Carry Concealed Weapons--Lost Time--Tables of Arrests--An Act to Regulate and Increase Police Salaries--The Jurisdiction of the Board extended over the Rural Districts of Yonkers, West Farms, and Richmond County--An Act to Regulate the Sale of Intoxicating Liquors--Increased Duties of the Police Board.

CHAPTER XI--1866--1870--AN ERA OF ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT

New Station Houses Erected and Old Ones Renovated--Improvement in the Discipline and Efficiency of the Force--Establishment of a Central Police Office in New York--Death of John C. Bergen--Appointment of a Metropolitan Fire Marshal and Assistant--House of Detention for Witnesses--Table of arrests for a Series of Years--Time Lost by Sickness-Re-organization of the Board of Metropolitan Police--Resignation of Commissioner Acton--Average Length of Posts--Amounts Paid for Sick Time--Value of Lost or Stolen property Recovered--The Sanitary Company--Lost Children --Buildings Found Open and Secured--Tables of Arrests--Salaries--location of Station Houses--An Era of organization and Development--"The Tweed Charter"--Death of Superintendent Jourdan.

CHAPTER XII--1871--1876-CLUBS MORE TRUSTWORTHY THAN LEADEN BALLS

Orange Riots--Police and Military Called Out--The Streets of New York Again the Scene of Riots and Bloodshed--The Militia, unauthorized, Fire Upon the Mob--Eleven Killed and Thirty Wounded--Cleaning of Streets Charged to the Board of Police--Completion of the Building of the House of Detention--Tables of Arrests--Time Lost to the Department by Reason of Sickness--property Clerk's Returns--presentation of the Flag of Honor--An Act to Re-organize the Local Government of New York--the Board of Police to Consist of Five Members--A Revised Manual issued to the Force--Duties of the Several heads of the Department and of the Force Generally--Regulation Uniforms--Qualifications for Appointment as a Patrolman--Measures of Economy Introduced--Board of Surgeons--Police Salaries--The Board Made to Consist of Four Members--Changes in the Board.

CHAPTER XIII--1875--1880-"New York SAYS, STOP!"

New York Fast Becoming a Law Abiding City--Proceedings and Report of the Select Legislative Committee on the Causes and Increase of Crime--Government of the Police Force--Demoralization and Inefficiency--All the Blame for these Evils not Attributed to the Police--Convictions hard to Gain--Legal Loop-holes of Retreat for Criminals--Lottery and Policy--The Detective Police Not Properly Remunerated for their Services--Salary and Duties of patrolmen, etc--The Board of Police Commissioners--Evil Effects of Political Intermeddling with the Force--Too Few Policemen--The Great Railroad Strikes--Scenes of Riot and Bloodshed--The Tompkins Square Meeting--"New York Says Stop!"--New Rules for the Guidance of the Force.

CHAPTER XIV--1880--1885--PROVISIONS OF THE CONSOLIDATION ACT

Central Office Bureau of Detectives--Government and Discipline of the Police Department--Powers Invested in the Board of Police--Bureau of Elections--Board of Health--Police Surgeons--Special Patrolmen--Police Life Insurance Fund--Power of the Police Force--Pawnbrokers--The Sanitary Company--Duties of Captains and Sergeants; of Physicians--The Telegraph System--An Act Amendatory of the Consolidation Act--Roosevelt Committee--Lottery and Policy.

CHAPTER XV--FIRST INSPECTION DISTRICT

Superintendent William Murray--A Brilliant Record--What a Policeman May Become by Honesty, Perseverance and Ability--A Model Police Official--Methodical, Keen, and Devoted to his Profession--the First Precinct; Captain Caffry--"The Iron Man"--The Most Important Police District in the World--Fourth Precinct; Captain Webb--Sixth Precinct; Captain McCullagh--Seventh Precinct; Captain Hedden--Tenth Precinct; Captain Allaire--Eleventh Precinct; Captain Meakin--Thirteenth Precinct; Captain Petty--Fourteenth Precinct; Captain Murphy--Seventeenth Precinct; Captain McCullagh--Eighteenth Precinct; Captain Clinchy--Twenty-first Precinct; Captain Ryan--Twenty-sixth Precinct; Sergeant Stewart.

CHAPTER XVI--SECOND INSPECTION DISTRICT

The Late Inspector Thorne--A Veteran Officer, whose Experience Was Coeval with the Existence of the Police Department--Intelligence, Energy, and Zeal--A Notable Record--Fifth precinct; Captain Eakins--Eighth Precinct; Captain McDonnell--Ninth Precinct; Captain Copeland--Fifteenth Precinct; Captain Brogan--Sixteenth Precinct; Captain McElwain--Twentieth Precinct; Captain Washburn--Twenty-fifth Precinct; Captain Garland--Twenty-seventh Precinct; Captain Berghold--Twenty-ninth Precinct; Captain Williams.

CHAPTER XVII--THIRD AND FOURTH INSPECTION DISTRICTS

Inspector Dilks--Enjoying a Rare Privilege, Namely, Reading His own Obituary--An officer Who has Distinguished Himself by His Bravery and Vigilance--A Veteran with a highly Honourable Record--Second Precinct; Captain Conlin--Twelfth Precinct; Captain Hooker--Nineteenth Precinct; Captain Mount--Nineteenth Sub-Precinct; Captain Schultz--Twenty-second Precinct; Captain Killilea--Twenty-Third Precinct; Captain Sanders--Twenty-eighth Precinct; Captain Gunner--Thirtieth Precinct; Captain Siebert--Thirty-first Precinct; Captain Leary--Thirty-second Precinct; Captain Cortright--Thirty-third Precinct; Captain Bennett--Thirty-fourth Precinct; Captain Robbins--Thirty-fifth Precinct; Captain Yule.

CHAPTER XVIII--DETECTIVE DEPARTMENT

Its Origin, Progress and Development--Detectives called "Shadows" in Chief Matsell's time--Inspector Thomas Byrnes--A Record that Reads like a Romance--His Re-Organization of the Detective Force--The Wall Street Bureau--Detective Sergeants--Inspector Byrnes' Methods--How Detectives Detect Criminals--Inspector Byrnes and "The Crook"--Their Chance Meeting in the Street--How Inspector Byrnes Reasons out a Case--Decrease of Crime among Professional Criminals--Criminals and Their Methods--New York a Difficult City to Protect against Thieves--Forgers, Pickpockets, Sneak Thieves, Bank Thieves, Bunco Steerers, Etc.

CHAPTER XIX--INSPECTOR BYRNES' COMMAND

The Men Who Protect the City from the Depredations of Knaves of High and Low Degree--Forty Quick-witted, Wide-awake Detectives--Their History and Record of Arrests--How They make the City a Safe Abiding-Place for Honest people--Interesting Tales of Some Celebrated Cases--The romance and Reality of Crime--Truth Stranger than Fiction--A Devoted Band of Police Officers--Their Struggle and Triumphs--The Men Who make It Possible for inspector Byres to Retain his Well-earned Laurels.

CHAPTER XX--POLICE CENTRAL OFFICE

The Centre of a System Which Affords Police Protection to the City--Headquarters of the Police Department--Telegraph Office; Superintendent Crowley--Third Precinct; Captain Gastlin--The Harbor Patrol--Superintendent's Chief Clerk, Hopcroft--Bureau of Inquiry for Missing People--Commissioner French--Commissioner Fitz John Porter--Commissioner Matthews--Lost Children--Chief Clerk Kipp--property Clerk's Office--The Sanitary Company--Tenement House Squad.

CHAPTER XXI--DUTIES OF A POLICEMAN

A Terror to the Wicked and Depraved., a Protector to the Upright and Virtuous--His Responsibilities and Labors--Necessary Qualifications: Youth, Strength, Intelligence, and a Stainless Reputation--The School of Instruction--Doing Patrol Duty--The Laws he has to Study and Enforce--Ex-Commissioner Erhardt's Exposition of a Policemen's Life--A Keen, Wiry, Clean-cut Set--Always on Post--An Eye that Knows no Sleep--Dangers to which Policemen are Exposed--Sprains, contusions, Incised Wounds, Fractured Limbs, Rheumatism, Pneumonia, etc--Sergeant John Delaney, a Type of a Brave Policeman.

CHAPTER XXII--SKETCH OF THE POLICE PENSION FUND

Created by Act of 1857--the Fund made up of the Sales of Unclaimed Property--Police Life and Health Insurance Fund--Beneficiaries of the Act--Metropolitan Reward Fund--Police Life Insurance Fund--The Police Commissioners, a Board of Trustees--The Treasurer of the Board of Commissioners--Treasurer of the Board of Trustees--Receipts and Disbursements--The Late Commission Nichols--Commission McClave--Bookkeeper George P. Gott--Paying Pensioners--Financial Statement of the Police Pension Fund.

CHAPTER XXIII--THE WAY OF THE TRANSGRESSOR

Our Police Courts--Arraignment of Prisoners and How Their Cases are Disposed Of--The Police Justices: Efficient, and Discriminating--Courts of Special Sessions, General Sessions, Oyer and Terminer, etc--District Attorney Martine and his Deputies--Fines Received from Police Courts--Number of Prisoners Arrested, Arraigned, and Convicted--The Ambulance System--Evils of Intemperance--A New Criminal Agency--The Opium Habit--"Hitting the Pipe"--Uses and Abuses of Opium--An Opium Smoker's Outfit--Vice Fostered by the Herding Together in Crowded Tenements--Some Gaudy Resorts--Criminals and Their Haunts.

 

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Our Police Protectors, History of the New York Police, Published for the benefit of the Police Pension Fund, by Augustine Costello, Published by Author, 1885.

Transcribed by Holice B. Young

HTML by Debbie

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