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Chapter 12 - Town of Elma - 1859-1865

CHAPTER XII.

TOWN OF ELMA - 1859-1865.

Mrs. George Standart, Sr. died January 11th, 1859, age sixty-one years, nine months - burial in Elma cemetery.

The third town meeting was held at the Elma Centre House, March 1st, 1859. The opposition to the forming of the new town grows less each year, as the people in the different parts of the town become better acquainted with each other, and the leaders in the political parties begin to show their hands and work for the nomination for town officers.

Since the town was organized, the candidates on the "Peoples' Ticket" had always been part Republican and part Democratic while the Republicans claim a majority of the voters in the town.

Jacob Jerge bought of Adam Michaelis the house and lot in Elma Village across the road from Charles A. Button's house and Jerge moved into the house on March 16th, 1859 and continued blacksmithing in the shop which he bought of Button on the east bank of the millrace; Louis Becker working in the shop for Jerge as wagon maker.

Conrad P. Hensel moved into Blossom Village this year. Marcus A. Howard and family moved from Aurora Village into the south part of Mrs. Julia F. Clark's house in April 1859, and lived there that summer while Howard was building a house on a lot he had bought of Clark W. Hurd on the west side of the Bowen Road, nearly opposite Wm. Standart's brick house. Howard had the house so far completed that he moved into it in December of that year. The deed from C. W. Hurd to Marcus A. Howard, dated April 16th, 1866, is recorded in Liber 253, Page 370.

The Bullis Lattice Bridge over the Big Buffalo Creek was built in the summer of 1859. The Bullis sawmill and dam were located about 25 rods below the bridge and it was supposed that these and the millpond would always be there. The water in the pond at the bridge was six feet deep and as wood under water would never decay, it was thought to be economy in building the abutments to use timber below the water line. Accordingly, pine logs were built into cribs as a foundation for the stone walls which were to support the bridge. This worked all right so long as the pond remained but years later when the dam went out and the mill went to decay and neither to ever be rebuilt, the timber of the cribs decayed. In order to save the bridge, new abutments of stone from the creek bottom had to be built.

Mr. Bullis having bought ten acres of land at the southeast corner of lot 29 on the north side of the Bullis Road, in 1859 built a house and horsebarn thereon. The house when finished was, by far, the finest house in the Town of Elma, and in 1900 there are very few houses, if indeed there is one, in the town that exceeds this Bullis house in fine interior and exterior finish, decoration and ornamentation. When completed, it was said to have cost $12,000, and in this house Mr. Bullis spent the closing years of his life. He died in 1869.

John Pomerink's little girl was burned so she died - dress caught fire from a burning brush heap.

Killing frost on morning of June 4th, ice one-third inch thick, and on mornings of July 3d and 4th killing frosts; grass frozen stiff July 4th at 7 p. m. These freezes destroyed all fruit, killed the grass, wheat, rye, corn and potatoes and farmers were greatly discouraged; they cut their grass and standing grain to save what they could for fodder for their stock.

John Morris died at Spring Brook in 1859, age seventy-three years, burial in Spring Brook cemetery.

The M. E. Church in Elma Village was built this year. As before stated, the business of the country was in a very low condition; money was very scarce and it was difficult to make a sale of wood or lumber for cash. Pay out of the store or a sale on time and at low price was the rule and it seemed to be a bad time in which to try to build a church, but the schoolhouse was too small to hold the people who wished to attend the meetings.

At a meeting of those interested in building a church in the Village and on the lot offered by Joseph B. Briggs; George Townsend, Henry D. Wilbor, and Warren Jackman were appointed a committee to get up a plan for a church to be presented at another meeting. At the next meeting, the committee presented their plan which was accepted and they were directed to ascertain if sufficient means could be raised to complete the building. The plan presented was for each person to furnish timber, lumber, stone, labor, teamwork, and cord wood, as they had of these materials, and as they could. An account was to be kept of the amount each one furnished, at the market price, and also, of the actual cost of the labor and materials used in the building. The slips were to be appraised by the trustees at a price sufficient to cover the entire cost when the building was finished and furnished; and at those prices as a start, the slips were to be sold at auction. If the person buying a slip had not furnished enough to pay for the same he was to give his note for the balance. If he had furnished more than the price of his shop, he was to take his balance in these notes. So no money was to be called for, nor was there any subscription to be made, only the word given to furnish what they could when called on.

Nearly every person owning land in the vicinity was pleased with the plan, and they readily agreed to furnish such material as they had. The committee reported the result of their visits and it was decided to go on with the building. The committee was directed to make out a bill of all materials needed in the structure. Warren Jackman was chosen by the trustees to take general charge of the building, arrange for the labor and material, and keep the accounts. The bill for timber and lumber was taken to each person and he selacted what and how much he would furnish. The superintendent then knew on whom and for what material to call.

Some of the lumber, the hardware, paint, and many other articles and pay for some of the labor could only be obtained in Buffalo, therefore arrangements were made with Pratt & Co, and Parmelee & Hadley for hardware and paint, with Howard & Whitcomb, and Holbrook & Dee, for dry goods; with H. Hager and Hart & Newman, for groceries; with George Marsh for flour and feed; with Jewett & Root for stoves; with George A. Prince for a melodeon; with Jeremiah Staats for lumber, chairs and sofa; with the Buffalo Stained Glass Co. for the windows: all to be paid for in lumber and wood. The labor not to apply on a slip was paid by orders drawn on stores in Buffalo or in wood or lumber if wanted. The first stick of timber, a long sill, was delivered by Hiram Kinney at 10 o'clock a. m., July 7th. The Elma people who had wood or lumber to turn in would take it to one of the stores in Buffalo and deliver where directed, taking a receipt for the price of the load. And so the whole business was done by exchange of material, and when the building was completed and furnished with carpets, lamps, seats, chairs, stoves, sofa and melodeon, at a cost of $3,400, it was all paid for and was dedicated February 9th, 1860, by Rev. Gleazen Fillmore.

Mr. Joseph B. Briggs donated the lot on which the church was built.

The M. E. Conference sent Rev. S. H. Baker to preach in Elma Village, he to reside in Lancaster. As he could be in Elma only on every other Sunday at 2 o'clock, p. m., the M. E. Society, after their church was built invited the Presbyterian Society, with Rev. William Waith as their pastor, to occupy the church every alternate Sunday afternoon, which offer was accepted and continued for two or three years.

Erastus J. Markham came from Brewerton, Onondaga County, to Elma in October, 1859, and moved into the house on the east side of the Bowen Road on Lot 59, being the house owned and occupied in 1900, by Mrs. Hannah Price. Markham taught the Elma Village school that winter.

The third general election was held in the Elma Centre House on November 8th, 1859. It being an off year, not much interest was taken, there being only two hundred and fifty-seven votes polled.

1860.

At the town meeting held March 6th, 1860, the Republican and Democratic parties, for the first time since the town was organized had straight party tickets.

Paul B. Lathrop and Zina A. Hemstreet were candidates for the office of Supervisor of the Republican and Democratic parties respectively.

While the Republicans claimed the town, a split in the party in the south part of the town, caused by what Mr. Lathrop had or had not clone at the session of the Board of Supervisors in 1859, was the cause of his defeat and a large part of the Democratic ticket was elected.

Julius P. Wilder put into the J. B. Briggs & Co's. steam mill building the machinery to cut shingles, giving employment to ten men and boys.

Jacob Jerge, on March 24th, 1860, bought of Charles A. Dutton, the house and lot on the west side of the Bowen Road in Elma Village, next north of Wm. H. Bancroft's place.

Erastus I. Markham, on April 10th, 1860, bought of James Clark, his interest in the store and that day moved into the back part of the building.

Mr. Clark moved into the house on the east side of the road next north of the Creek.

Dr. Carey W. Howe with his newly married wife moved into the south wing of W. Jackman's house about May 1st, 1860.

Mrs. James Davis died May 17th, 1860, age fifty-one years - burial in Davis cemetery on Lot 36 of Mile Strip.

June 14th, 1860, Erastus J. Markham bought the vacant lot on the west side of the road between Elon Clark and Jacob Jerge.

Wallace Tiffany and Lawrence Dimert this summer operated the sawmill which was built by George Standart, Sr. about 1855 on the south side of the Big Buffalo Creek near the northwest corner of Lot 74, and across the Creek from the Bowen & Little sawmill.

Joseph C. Standart was appointed Postmaster of the Elma Postoffice in June, 1860, by President James Buchanan, and the office was moved to the Elma Centre House with Silas Green who kept the tavern, as deputy; Green having charge of the office. The moving of the office from Elma Village three quarters of a mile to the Bullis Road, caused much dissatisfaction among a very large majority of the patrons of the office.

During the summer, Hurd & Briggs put another run of stones and other machinery for making flour, into their gristmill building at the west end of their sawmill. George Townsend did the millwright work and acted as miller until he enlisted into the 116th Regiment of N. Y. S. Volunteers in August, 1862.

The Peter Bower steam saw and gristmill in Spring Brook burned in the summer of 1860.

James M. Simons moved out of the Mouse Nest tavern at Spring Brook on August 25th, 1860, having rented the place to W. Wesley Standart, who moved in on the same day.

Thomas D. Tiffany who lived on Lot 64, on the north side of the Bullis Road, committed suicide by hanging himself in his barn in September 1860.

Charles Reichert bought the store of the Ebenezer Society in Blossom and had the Postoffice. The Village and Postoffice while the Ebenezers occupied the place went by the name of Upper Ebenezer.

The United States census reports gave the population of the Town of Elma in 1860 at 2,136, and for the Town of Marilla, same year at 1,506.

As Marilla had been under settlement about thirty years, while Elma, except the Mile Strip part, had been under settlement about fifteen years, this difference in population shows what a rush was made to gain a place on the last purchase of the Buffalo Creek Reservation. The great variety and excellent quality of the timber and the fertility of the soil, all of which being well watered, made it desirable for the farmers.

The Presidential campaign of 1860 was one of great interest and excitement throughout the whole country and the Town of Elma had its full share. It was conceded that the election was to be the most important in the history of the country to that time.

The great question was as to the further extension of slavery. The Republican party had taken the stand that slavery should not go into the new states and territories but should remain undisturbed in the States where it then existed. The Abolition and Free Soil parties joined with the Republicans in this campaign. Abraham Lincoln was the Republican candidate for President.

The Democrats were divided; a part declaring for the Squatter Sovereignty idea, which was, that in the settlement of the territories, the north and the south were to have an equal chance; each to have the privilege to take their property, slave or other, into the territory and when the time came to apply for admission as a State, the constitution that should be adopted by a majority of the people residing there at the time, slave or free, should be the constitution under which the state should be admitted. Stephen A. Douglass was their candidate.

The leaders in the slave states declared that they had the right under the constitution of the United States to take their slaves and hold them as such wherever the United States flag floated and that the territories being common property they had the right to settle in the territories with their slaves and other property, and, when there, that no power could deprive them of the privilege of remaining and have their property protected when the territory became a state. This would make every territory sure to be admitted as a slave state. John C. Breckenridge was their candidate for President.

The great battle of the campaign in Erie County and generally throughout the northern states, was between the Republicans and the Douglass Democrats, very few votes being polled for Breckenridge or Bell.

In the Town of Elma there were two hundred and fifty-two votes polled for Lincoln, and one hundred and eighty-eight for Douglass: total four hundred and forty, giving Lincoln sixty-four majority. In the Electoral College, of three hundred and three votes, Lincoln had one hundred and eighty; a majority over all others of fifty seven. The leaders in the South were very much dissatisfied with the result and immediately began to carry out their threat of dissolution of the Union and before the close of the year. South Carolina had passed an ordinance of secession, and other southern states were preparing to follow that example. Their reason was that fourteen of the states had failed to observe their constitutional obligations. This was the political condition at the close of 1860.

FEBRUARY 7th, 1861. - THE COLDEST DAY.

In January of this year, Austin Twichell was appointed Postmaster of the Springbrook Postoffice by President Buchannan and the office was moved from McFees grocery to what is known as the Leger place.

In Elma Village on Thursday morning, February 7th, the thermometer registered 20° above zero, snowing, high west wind; at 9 p. m. thermometer 11° below zero. Friday morning at daylight, 30° below zero, at sunrise 25° below, at 9 a. m. 18° below, clear and still, snow badly drifted. This was the coldest day of any record of Elma weather.

March 4th, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as President of the United States. Several of the southern states had passed ordinances of secession and on February 18th, 1861, they adopted a constitution as "The Confederate States of America," and elected Jefferson Davis as their President with Alexander Stephens as Vice president.

The Elma town meeting was held on March 5th at Spring Brook, in the Mouse Nest tavern.

For officers elected see Chapter XXI.

The Northrup bridge across the Cazenove Creek below the mills went out with the spring freshet.

Washington Standart died March 24th, 1861, aged thirty-seven years, three months - burial in the Elma Village cemetery.

On March 28, the Commissioners of Highways of the town, changed the road at Northrup mills from a point on the east of side the sawmill yard, on the north side of the creek so as to cross the millpond about fifteen rods above the mills and where the road and bridge have been located since that date; A new lattice bridge was built there in the summer of 1861.

Zebina Lee died at Spring Brook April 4th, 1861, - burial in the Spring Brook cemetery.

April 12th, 1861, at 4.30 o'clock a. m., the War of the Rebellion was commenced by the rebel batteries commanded by General Beauregard near Fort Sumter, opening fire on that fort, which was held by Major Robert Anderson and the eighty men which composed the garrison. The fort was surrendered April 14th, the United States soldiers marching out with the honors of war. The news was a surprise to the people of the North and it meant that civil war was a reality. It greatly united the people of the North.

The next clay, April 15th, President Lincoln called an extra session of Congress to meet July 4th, and at the same time issued his proclamation calling for 75,000 militia to serve three months to protect the capital and to secure the property of the government.

President Davis met this with a call for 100,000 men.

May 3d, President Lincoln called for 64,000 volunteers.

Deforest Standart enlisted in the 21st Regiment, N. Y. Volunteers May 20th, 1861.

East Elma Postoffice established with Fowler Hunger as Postmaster in the summer of 1861. He had the office in his house in the millyard.

In June, 1861, James H. Ward was appointed Postmaster for Spring Brook and moved the Postoffice from Twichell's grocery at Leger place to his (Ward 's) Justice's office.

Warren Jackman was appointed Postmaster at Elma in June and on July 1st moved the office from the tavern at the corner of Bowen and Bullis Roads, into E. J. Markham's store with Markham as deputy Postmaster.

Rev. James McClellan was sent by the M. E. Conference to preach at Lancaster, Bowmansville and Elma, the meeting at Elma to be held at 2 p. m.

George Leger built a steam sawmill on Pond Brook on the north side of the Rice Road on Lot 44 in the summer of 1861.

The tannery at Spring Brook, owned and operated by Curtis & Deming, was burned in the fall of 1861; they continued their store a few months and closed out.

E. J. Markham built a barn on his lot on the west side of the road in Elma Village- in the fall of 1861. He had the foundation wall nearly completed when on September 26th, a heavy rain commenced which continued on the 27th and forenoon of 28th. This caused high water in all the streams and along the upper part of the Big Buffalo Creek the small dams gave out, and the increase of water caused thereby would take out the next, and the next and, so, gaining in volume and strength, everything was swept before the raging torrent. On the Big Buffalo Creek, thirteen milldams were swept away, and several mills were carried off, among them the Hemstreet and Bullis sawmills. Part of the Bullis mill drifted on to Eleazer Bancroft's flats. At East Elma, the water was one to four feet deep from the bank at the schoolhouse to the creek, the current taking sawlogs two feet in diameter from the yard of the steam shinglemill and taking them into the creek; the whole flats forming a lake. Many bridges were carried away; the Simanton bridge on the Girdled Road, and the Standart bridge three fourths mile below Elma Village being two of the large bridges in this town to go. This was on Saturday, September 28th, 1861, and that day will long be remembered, as the fiats of the Creek for many miles in length of the stream, was a broad river with rapid current in which could be seen the ruins of buildings and fences, with lumber, sawlogs, trees, shocks of corn; everything in that line within the reach of the water was carried away. In Elma Village, from Hurd & Briggs mills to the creek, the water was three to five feet deep. This was the greatest and worst flood causing the greatest loss of property of any ever known on the Big Buffalo Creek.

The Bullis and Hemstreet sawmills and dams which were carried away by the freshet of September 28th, 1861, were immediately rebuilt, the mills being ready for business in the early part of 1862.

The German Evangelical Society was organized in Blossom in 1861, they having bought the building which the Ebenezer Society had built for a church.

John Garby enlisted in Wiederick's Battery in October 1861, and Fred Michaelis enlisted in same battery in November.

At the general election held on November 5th, 1861, there were two hundred and ninety-one votes polled.

1862.

Jacob Jerge, on January 29th, 1862, sold the house and lot on the east side of the street in Elma Village next south of the church lot, to his brother Casper, and Jacob and Casper worked together as blacksmiths.

On April 1st, W. Wesley Standart moved from the Mouse Nest tavern in Spring Brook and he took his father's farm for one year. Nicholas Allender moved into the tavern.

George Standart, Sr., died April 15th, 1862, age seventy-two years - burial in Elma cemetery.

James H. Ward, on May 1st, 1862, bought of Calvin Rogers, one and one-fourth acres of land, part of Lot 84, on the south west side of the Plank Road in Spring Brook.

Hugh Mullen on May 1st, 1862, moved on to the west part of Lot 2 north from East Elma. In the summer of 1862, Horace Kyser built a steam sawmill in Spring Brook on the ground where the Peter Bower steam mill was burned in 1860.

During the summer and fall of 1862, many young and middle-aged men enlisted from this town. The dates of their enlistment cannot now be learned, but the names so far as could be obtained, will be found in Chapter XIII, with the arm of the service into which they entered.

August Brunner, who had worked for the Ebenezer Society, was murdered this year at or near the sawmill in Blossom, and his body was thrown into the millpond. No trace of the murderer was ever obtained.

The 116th Regiment, N. Y. S. Volunteers left Buffalo for the front on September 3d, 1862. In that regiment were twenty-six men from the town of Elma.

Twenty-four men enlisted from this town into the 94th Regiment and left Buffalo about November 14th. This 94th Regiment was in the Fredericksburg battle, December 13th, 1862. A bounty fund for the enlisted men of $1,051 was raised by subscriptions.

Norton B. Lougee, who had enlisted in the 49th Regiment, August 26th, 1861, died November 2, 1862, age twenty-eight years, eight months, burial in Elma Village cemetery.

1863.

Isaac Gail was appointed Postmaster at East Elma in the fall of 1862. Cornelius McHugh was murdered near Buffalo, January 5th, 1863. He was on his way home from the city and when a little west of the Plank Road House on the Aurora Plank Road, and near the present city line, he was killed. His murderer was not found, by a man by the name of Fogleman, who lived on Lot 70 on the Bullis Road in the Town of Elma, in a short time moved into Canada. It was reported that before he died, he confessed that he murdered Brunner at Blossom, McHugh near Buffalo, and that he burned the saloon at Smalltz corners on the Clinton Street Road. This is only a report.

Frederick Heim bought the west part of Lot 30 on the north side of the Jamison Road and moved on the lot in January 1863.

The East Elma Postoffice was discontinued in the fall of 1863. James Ard died February 7th, 1863, age seventy-five years, buried in Elma cemetery.

Robert W. Lee of Spring Brook, of 49th Regiment died at Point Lookout, Maryland, February 10th, 1863, burial in Spring Brook cemetery.

Erastus J. Markham, on April 25th, 1863, bought of Warren Jackman, the store in Elma Village on the west side of the street and over the millrace.

George Leger, in the spring of 1863, bought and moved into the saloon in Springbrook, many times referred to as the Leger place.

Allen J. Hurd, son of Clark W. Hurd, who enlisted into the 44th Regiment, N. Y. S. Volunteers, called the "Ellsworth Avengers," was wounded at the battle of Gettysburg July 3d, 1863; died in the hospital July 13th, age twenty-one years, five months; burial in Elma Village cemetery.

A special town meeting was held in the summer of 1863, when the town voted to raise $4,000 by tax, the money to be used as a bounty fund, to be paid to volunteers for putting down the rebellion.

Stephen Northrup sold the goods in the store at the southwest corner of the Northrup and Plank Roads in Spring Brook to John P. Warner, in September 1863. Northrup moved on to the Lyman Parker farm on the Rice Road.

Cyrus Hurd, on November 4th, 1863, bought of Tiffany and Dimert the sawmill on Lot 74, on the south side of the Big Buffalo Creek. He also bought the sawmill which was built by Standart and Bowen on the north side of the Creek in 1849. Hurd operated both mills as long as they could be used when they were taken down, the dam having been carried off by a freshet.

Jacob Heim bought and moved on Lot 34 on the north side of the Jamison Road, in the fall of 1863.

1864.

Abraham Sharick and son rented the Northrup gristmill in Spring Brook for the year 1864.

O. J. Wannemacher, on February 25th, bought of Lewis Northrup, twenty acres from the south side of Lot 71, also one acre from the northwest corner of Lot 67 on the northeast side of the Plank Road, he moving into the town on May 1st, 1864.

John Barnett sold to Timothy Clifford his house, blacksmith shop, and lots in Spring Brook, being parts of Lots 75 and 84; deed dated April 1st, 1864.

Charles Probes, on June 24th, bought the west half of Lot 45, on- south side of Rice Road. Charles and John Raloff, this year, bought land near what is later Jamison Station.

A Catholic schoolhouse was built on the southeast corner of the Clinton Street and Girdled Roads in the summer of 1864 under the supervision of Rev. A. Feldman, of Lancaster. School has since been kept there as a branch of the Lancaster parochial school. George Leger, this year, sold his steam sawmill on Pond Brook to Christopher Peek.

Fred Heitman, in the summer of 1864, bought and moved on to the centre part of Lot 45, the house on the Woodard Road which was known as "Ebenezer Prison House."

W. Wesley Standart, September 7th, 1864, bought of Clark W. Hurd the store and four and one-fourth acres of land at the northwest corner of the Bowen and Bullis Roads; moved in and opened a store January 1st, 1865.

Deforest Standart, who enlisted in the 21st Regiment, died of yellow fever in Little Washington, North Carolina, October 10th, 1864.

George Townsend, color bearer of 116th Regiment, died October 19th, 1864, in Saturlee Hospital, Philadelphia, from wounds received at Cedar Creek, age thirty-seven years; burial in Elma cemetery.

The Presidential campaign of 1864 was a hard-fought battle among the leaders of both parties. The Republican platform declaring for a prosecution of the war and against a dissolution of the Union; the Democratic platform declared the war a failure and advised to recognize the Southern Confederacy and withdraw the northern army from the seceded states.

This town gave a good majority for the Republican candidates, Lincoln and Johnson. The Electoral College gave Lincoln 233 votes and to George B. McClelland twenty-one votes. Lincoln's popular vote was 2,216,057, McClelland 's 1,811,714. Enlistment into the army continued.

1865.

Mr. James Davis, who moved on to the north part of Lot 35 of the Mile Strip, one and one-half miles southwest from Spring Brook in 1831, died January 29th, 1865; age sixty-five years; burial in Davis cemetery on Lot 36 of Mile Strip.

Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated the second term on March 4th, 1865. - Andrew Johnson Vice-President.

Sophia, wife of Elisha Cotton, died March 31st, 1865; burial in Elma Village cemetery.

The surrender of the Confederate Northern Army of Virginia by General R. E. Lee to General U. S. Grant on April 9th, 1865; the shooting of Abraham Lincoln, by J. Wilkes Booth on April 14th, 1865; the attempted assassination of William H. Seward, Secretary of State the same night; the death of President Lincoln on April 15th, 1865; the inauguration of Andrew Johnson as President on April 15th, 1865; the surrender of the Confederate Army of North Carolina by General Johnston, April, 26th, 1865, which effected the collapse of the Southern Confederacy and virtually closed the war of the Rebellion, has made the month of April 1865, a most important month in the history of our country; the incidents having been written in detail by writers of the history of the Rebellion and in the biographies of the great men of the nation of that date. Further mention as to the part the town of Elma took will be made in Chapter XIII.

Maple trees were set on the south side and in front of the M. E. Church building in Elma Village in April, 1865.

Henry E. Bancroft bought thirty-three acres of Lot 64 on the north side of the Bullis Road in the spring of 1865.

George H. Bristol bought of Curtis & Deming, the tannery, store, and lot in Spring Brook, July 31st, 1865 and made extensive repairs in the store building.

Christian Fath committed suicide July, 1865, by lying down where a tree had been turned out by the wind, the body of the tree had been cut off leaving the stump and turned up root so balanced that after lying down he pulled the roots back completely burying himself, except one foot stuck out a very little. Family trouble was the cause.

W. Wesley Standart was appointed Postmaster of the Elma Postoffice under President Johnson, and September 1st, 1865, he moved the office from Elma Village into his store on the northwest corner of the Bowen and Bullis Roads, where he kept the office until July lst, 1869.

After 1860, there was a rush of buyers of land into the Town of Elma and the unoccupied timber lands were bought and many families moved on to that part of the town, comprising the Aurora part of the town, west of the Big Buffalo Creek on the east and the Bowen Road on the west, and between the Rice Road on the north and the north line of the Mile Strip. The State census taken in 1865 shows: White males, 1502, white females, 1399; colored males, 4, colored females, 2. Total males, 1506; total females, 1401. Total population, 2907. Increase of population in five years 771, being over 36%. There were of single persons 1727, married 1098, widows 51, widowers 31; making 575 families, - 415 owners of land, 123 over 21 could not read nor write, 276 native voters, 273 naturalized voters; total of voters 549. There were 333 aliens residing in the town in 1865. These new-comers were workers and the changed condition in the general appearance of the town in a few years was that of the forest being made into cleared farms, with houses, barns, orchards and well fenced fields, showing prosperity.

William Miller, Sr., bought of John W. Hamlin ten acres of Lot 24 on the east side of the Girdled Road, September 11th, 1865.

William Morris, who lived across the road from the tavern in Spring Brook, committed suicide by cutting his throat with a razor, November 1st, 1865; age 46 years; burial in the Spring Brook cemetery. No doubt, it was a case of insanity, as he had been in the Utica Asylum for the insane two or three times, but was at his home at this time.

Elisha Cotton died December 6th, 1865; age eighty years, eight months; burial in Elma Village cemetery.

The United States Public debt December 31st, 1865 was $2,716,898,152. In 1860, the public debt was a little less than $65,000,000.

The State of New York furnished under all the calls 464,156 men who entered the United States army to save the Union from being broken up by the Southern Secessionists.

The Town of Elma put into the field one hundred and twenty six men as a part of the State Volunteers. (See Chapter XIII).

SOURCE: History of the Town of Elma Erie County, N. Y. 1620 To 1901; Warren Jackman; Buffalo; G. M. Hausauer & Son; 1902