Ontario County Organized Churches

History of Ontario Co., NY 

Chapter XXV 

Religious Denominations and Church Statistics

     Published  1878   Pg 60 - 63

 

 

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Kindly transcribed by Deborah Spencer.  Pictures are compliments of Ron Hanley.

 

 

CHAPTER XXV

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AND CHURCH STATISTICS

DIFFERING in name, but a unit in purpose, missionaries from the eastern churches traveled the hills and plains of Ontario to recall members to their duty, to organize societies, and to augment their ranks from skeptical neighbors by powerful revivals.  Ontario was long a great missionary field, yet the erection of meeting-houses is almost cotemporary with the earliest settlement.  By legislative enactment, of date April, 1804, any religious denomination was authorized to appoint trustees, and form a body corporate capable of legal transactions.  The history of a church generally dates from this action.  Yet, in general, a deserted log house, a school-building, the open air, and the private dwelling witnessed many an act of adoration, resounded with many a cry for mercy and shout of gladness.  Religious toleration has been a notable feature of Ontario churches.  Union churches were erected and amicably occupied.  A Presbyterian society is cheerfully invited to occupy a Methodist church, pending the erection of a building; and an Episcopal society invites a Methodist to become their rector, and he, complying with their forms, accepts and serves them.  The erection of buildings and the payment of salaries were great difficulties encountered by feeble organizations, and it is interesting in church histories to note the patience shown, and success resultant in a generality of instances.  A new country was a crucial test of genuine religion.  There were many infidel in belief; there were those who, professedly pious in the east, left their religion behind them when they came west; and there were many devoted men, with heroic wives, whose self-denying labors for the support of the gospel could, in recital, recount a chapter excelled by no other cause.  In the histories of towns and villages is found the individual church record, while here is attempted but an outline of denominations and a summary of churches, value of property, membership, and other matters calculated to embody evidences of growth and strength, and furnish a basis for a future comparison.   

  

                   Canandaigua Methodist Church                                                  Victor Methodist Church

METHODIST CHURCHES - are numerous, wealthy, and prosperous.  Early in the field, their faithful circuit-riders rode everywhere, and while there were no organized churches, there were bands scattered all through the community.  The division of the society was into classes, societies, quarterly conferences, circuits, districts, and annual and general conferences.  Wherever a few Methodists came together they were formed into a class, and a leader appointed.  When a class became sufficiently strong, it was organized into a church or society.  The quarterly conference consisted of official members of the church, who were the class-leaders, stewards, and trustees.  The presiding elder acted as chairman.  A circuit consisted of several charges, to which, generally, two ministers were assigned for two years.  A district composed several circuits, over which a presiding elder was placed for a term of four years.  An annual conference was composed of all the ministers of a designated number of districts, over which a bishop presided.  The general conference was made up from all the annual conferences in the United States.  The Genesee conference embraced all the territory from Ontario lake to one hundred miles south of Elmira, into Pennsylvania, and from Cayuga to Buffalo.  The Ontario circuit was of vast extent.  Joseph JEWELL was presiding elder in 1805.  Among the pioneer preachers were David DUNHAM, Benjamin BIDLACK, Smith WEEKS, and Roger BENTON.  The last-named recently deceased at Newark, Wayne county.  In 1808, Rev. James HERRON was presiding elder, Wm. B. LACEY and James MITCHELL, preachers.  The first quarterly conference was held July 9, 1808, at Boughton, town of Bloomfield, where the following-named were present: Elder HERRON, Revs. Wm. B. LACEY, Jas. MITCHELL, Smith WEEKS, Abijah WRIGHT, John BAGGERLY, Stiles PARKER, William SMITH, Moses HALL, Jonah DAVIS, Ambrose PHELPS, Isaac VAN ORMAN, Nathaniel JENKINS, Nathan LOUGHBOROUGH, and John ROSE.  Petitions were presented,---Palmyra asking that an exhorter's license be granted to Abram ALBRIDGE; Canandaigua praying that Moses HULL, of Farmington, be licensed to preach the gospel; Penfield asking license for Eli WALKER, and one from Victor, for Parker BUELL.  All were granted.  The conference adjourned to meet at Charleston, near Lima Corners, in 1809.  The meagre salaries and the weakness of the society financially is shown at this meeting, where the presiding elder received $4, Rev. B. LACY, Ex., $2, quarterage, $16, and Jas. MITCHELL, Ex., $1.50, quarterage, $16.89.  Total, $40.89.  Proceedings show a rigid discipline to sustain the church in purity, with a kindly effort at reclaiming those who fell below the standard.  Rev. Gideon DRAPER was appointed to the district.  The preachers on the circuit were Revs. LACEY, HENRY, MONTEATH, and John KIMBERLIN.  The first quarterly meeting was held at Pittsford, second at Norton's (now Honeoye's Falls), the third, Phelpstown, and the fourth, near Sulphur Springs (Clifton).  In 1810 the Genesee conference was formed.  The meeting was held near Lyons village, in Squire DAVY's barn.  Rev. G. DRAPER still continued in charge of this, the Susquehanna district.  Revs. George THOMAS, G. W. DENSMORE, and Noah BIGELOW were preachers.  The next quarterly conference was held at the house of Esquire ROOT, at "Number Nine," and the public services in his barn.  People crowded to these assemblages, and the barn or the grove were the only places to accommodate them. 

In February, 1811, the officers of the circuit were classified as follows: Reverends HALL, JENKINS, and Abel WHITE; circuit stewards, N. LOUGHBOROUGH and R. ROOT; class-leaders, Levi FERGUSON, Thomas POWERS, Levi WOOD, Peter BAGGERLY, S. BOOTH, and Isaac MARSH; exhorters, six; class-leaders, ten.  Total, twenty-six.  In 1811-12, Thomas WRIGHT, Joseph KINCAID, and Peregrine HOLLETT were the circuit preachers. 

The arraignment during this year of a local preacher "for drinking spirituous liquors to excess," his present acquittal and subsequent revocation of license for repeated offense, evidence the decided position taken by the Methodist Episcopal church in the cause of temperance. 

The style of preaching adopted was augmentative and exhortatory.  Strong appeals were made to the heart.  Abijah WRIGHT so preached in a barn in Victor, that a horror came upon the unconverted.  Some fell, others leaped into the bog and fled away fearing to remain.  It is related that people left their hay uncut, their ripe grain un-harvested, when it was known that "preaching" was to be held in the neighborhood. 

 In 1816 the eccentric but devoted Lorenzo DOW visited Ontario, and filled a series of appointments at various points.  The young regarded him with fear, and the old with curiosity, and crowds attended his meetings. 

In 1821 there were six hundred and twenty-one members in the Ontario circuit, and in 1865 there were over three thousand members upon only a part of this territory.  There were long discourses in those times, as it is recorded that one Peiffer preached three hours from Isaiah v., 3, 4.  As numbers increased, the circuit was divided and sub-divided until the present status has been reached.   

In 1837-38 a dissension arose regarding the word episcopal in some localities, and a branch was formed which was known as Methodists. 

During the winter of 1842-43, came the disorders engendered by the Millerite excitement.  Certain men, studying the prophecies, concluded that the time for Christ's second advent was the spring of 1843.  Lecturers traveled and taught the doctrine.  Ministers, thinking to utilize the idea, gave it their support, and there ensued a wild, universal excitement injurious to the church,---a warning for all coming time. 

Up to 1865, there had been in the district, since 1805, twenty presiding elders.  There had been eighty-one different ministers on one charge, for periods of a year or so each. The strength of the Methodist Churches in 1875 is given as follows:

 

Towns

No. of Churches $ Value of Church & Lot Value of Real Estate Seating Capacity Average Attendants Members Salary  $ of Clergy
Manchester 1           10,000             1,400 350 175 110 700
Naples 1             4,000             6,500 350 250 267 800
Richmond 1             3,100             2,500 200 150 73 600
Seneca 1             3,500             1,800 300 100 96 400
Victor 1           22,000             5,000 500 300 130 1200
West Bloomfield 1             2,000                  -   200 130 85 500
Manchester 1             2,000                  -   30 125 80 600
Manchester 1           15,000             3,000 450 300 150 1100
Bristol 1             4,000                800 250 70 54 600
Canadice 1             3,000                250 250 150 50 400
Canandaigua 1           25,000             5,000 650 500 300 1500
East Bloomfield 1             7,000             2,000 600 200 70 800
Gorham 1             5,000             1,200 300 200 95 1000
Gorham 1           20,000           12,000 800 400 250 1500
Geneva 1           20,000           80,000 750 400 340 1200
Hopewell, Chapinville 1             2,750             3,000 200 150 22 300
Hopewell  1             5,000             2,000 350 150 70 500
Hopewell 1             4,000                  -   250 200 120 500
TOTALS 18         157,350           55,450 7050 3950 2352       13,400

Canandaigua Episcopal Church

THE WESLEYAN METHODIST - denomination was formed in May, 1843, from the Methodist Episcopal church.  This organization differs from others by rejecting the official classification of ministers as bishops, elders, and deacons.  The church at Farmington reports the value of church, $2000; real estate, $1000; seats, 200; attendance, 50; members, 26; salary, $200. 

In localities where sparse population and remoteness prevents strict denominational societies, Union churches were formed.  Two of these at present exist; one in Phelps, the other in Canandaigua at Academy.  The statistics will be found in the summary. 

         

Canandaigua United Presbyterian Baptist Church                             Victor Presbyterian Church

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES - had their origin in the ephemeral but still primal organization effected by Rev. John SMITH, about 1792, at Canandaigua.  The Lord's Supper was celebrated, and the little society of pioneers, called from remote clearings and unacquainted, probably never met again.  The church in East Bloomfield, organized in 1796, and again in 1799, became the source from which those of Victor, North Bristol, and West Bloomfield had origin.  The name of Jedediah CHAPMAN is given as that of the first Presbyterian minister resident of western New York.  He settled at Geneva in 1800, and alternated in church and missionary work until his death, in 1813.  The Congregationalist, of one heart, and nearly of one mind, cordially united with the Presbyterian, and their early history is closely commingled.  The presbytery of Albany, in 1802, was divided into three presbyteries, and in 1803 was constituted the synod of Albany.  In 1805, one of the presbyteries, that of Oneida, was divided and the Geneva presbytery was organized, and then embraced the entire State west of Oneida and Chenango counties.  The ministers were Rev. J. CHAPMAN, Geneva; John LINDSLEY, Ovid; Samuel LEACOCK, of Gorham, and J. CHADWICK, of Milton.  There were, at the time, eight churches in the new presbytery, of which Geneva and Gorham were two.  Twelve years rolled away, and the church had grown to twenty-nine ministers, seven licentiates, and forty-five churches.  A meeting was held February, 1817, and the presbytery of Geneva was divided into four presbyteries, named Bath, Niagara, Geneva, and Ontario.  The church greatly prospered after this division.  A large number of settlers were coming in, and members, churches, and ministers were greatly increased.  In 1819, Niagara presbytery had grown from seven to thirty-two churches, and from three to ten ministers.  Ontario, from thirteen had twenty-three churches, and her nine ministers had increased to twenty.  Geneva, from seventeen had increased to twenty-three churches, and its ministers ten to seventeen.  The year 1799 was characterized as that of the great revival.  Bristol, Victor, Bloomfield, and other parts of Ontario were swept by the holy influences; people crowded to hear preaching, and four hundred persons congregated at one place.  Each of the years from 1822 to 1827 were marked by revivals under circumstances the most memorable.  In 1831, an extensive and powerful revival swept through the United States; the presbytery of western New York received thousands of hopeful conversions.  Many of those converted were of persons old and young, attending Bible-class and Sunday-school.  To secure interest, no questionable expedients were employed; the name "protracted meetings" was given to exercises----consisting of preaching, with pointed, severe application, exhortation, and prayer.  Preachers most qualified for revival work were called evangelists; conversion of sinners was their one object.  The first of this class in western New York was Rev. Chas. G. FINNEY, about 1826, and again in 1831; Rev. Jedediah BURCHARD was such a preacher in 1833-34; Augustus LITTLEJOHN was famous among the people, and meetings attended by many.  He was deposed March 18, 1841, and excommunicated for acts opposed to Christian conduct.  The Genesee Missionary Society had its origin during January of the year 1810, at where now Phelps village is located.  The first suggestions were received from Deacon Abiel LINDSLEY, of Prattsburg, to Rev. James N. HOTCHKIN, at the semi-annual meeting of the Ontario association, relative to raising funds for the distribution of Bibles and tracts to the destitute.  A society was formed, a constitution adopted, and officers were elected.  Rev. CHAPMAN, of the Geneva presbytery, was elected president of the society, which was, later, legally incorporated. 

Among other organizations having their origin in the necessities of the people and the cause of religion was that of the Western Education Society at Utica, in 1817.  It was confined to no one church, but the Presbyterians were its principal supporters.  Its object was the education of indigent young men for the ministry.  Rev. A.G. BALDWIN and Colonel Robt. TROUP, of Geneva, were vice-presidents.  During 1817, Rev. Henry SMITH was made agent for solicitation of funds.  He obtained from Ontario three thousand two hundred and thirty-seven dollars and eighty-nine cents.  Sabbeth-schools have been early instituted and maintained with interest.  A Sabbeth-school Union was formed at Rochester in 1827, and comprised thirteen counties.  In the next year a county union was formed.  Most ministers of the Presbyterian church early became supporters of the temperance cause. 

As an evidence of growth and present prosperity of the Presbyterian church within the limits of Ontario, we present the following statistics, derived from the census of 1875:

  No. of $ Value of Value of Seating Average   Salary  $
Towns Churches Church & Lot Real Estate Capacity Attendants Members of Clergy
Naples 1           16,000                  -   400 200 145 800
Phelps 1             5,000             1,000 250 100 82 500
Seenca, Castleton 1             6,000             4,000 400 200 106 900
Manchester, Shortsville 1             4,500           25,000 300 150 80 1000
Canandaigua Village 1           40,000                  -   800 400 230 2450
Gorham Village 1                500             1,500 255 200 96 1100
Geneva North Pres. 1             1,000                  -   0 0 0 0
Geneva Reformed 1           25,000                  -   800 200 200 1500
Geneva 1st Pres. 1           40,000           10,000 1000 400 400 2500
Geneva North Pres.               6,000           12,000 300 250 0 2500
TOTALS 10         144,000           31,000 4515 2100 1339       13,250

 

Canandaigua Congregational Church

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES - were the first established societies in the county.  Rev. Zadoc HUNN organized a church of this order in East Bloomfield during the year 1796.  Elisha WADE instituted public service in West Bloomfield during the same year, but died before the organization of the church, three years afterwards.  In December, 1796, John Rolph and Rev. HUNN formed a church at South Bristol.  The church in Richmond dates 1801, and prior to this, in 1799, three churches had origin,---Victor, Canandaigua, and North Bristol.  In 1800, Middletown, now Naples, was formed, and Augusta (Rushville) in 1802. 

The church at Bristol was the first house erected for worship in the Genesee country.  It was of round logs, and had a gallery.  The society became the largest and most promising in western New York.  Accessions of population brought a percentage of professors of religion, and those of Congregational faith harmonized and labored with the Presbyterians, making their early history synonymous.  The Ontario association was the oldest ecclesiastical body in western New York.  In 1804 its ministers were Joseph GROVER, John ROLPH, Reuben PARMELE, Timothy FIELD, Eleazer FAIRBANKS, James H. HOTCHKEN, and Abijah WARREN.  The association was composed of ten churches. 

On January 10, 1810, Canandaigua church seceded and became independent.  In 1812 the association discussed the subject of a union with the presbytery of Geneva, and on May 25, at Prattsburg, formally dissolved and connected themselves with that body. 

For a number of years no Congregational organization of churches or ministers existed in the State west of the east line of the military tract.  About 1817, Rev. John TAYLOR located at Mendon, then in Ontario.  He was a talented and influential man, and a rigid Congregationalist.  By his efforts Congregationalism resumed its individuality, and the Genesee consociation was organized in 1818.  The churches of this religious order in Ontario are partly unassociated; others belong to the Ontario association.  The following statistics exhibit present strength:

  Name of $ Value of Value of Seating Average   Salary  $ Contrib.
Date Organized Church Church & Lot Real Estate Capacity Attendants Members of Clergy for 1875
Nov 1854 1st Cong. - Honeoye             7,500    300 250 95 1000  
Mar 4, 1843 Reed's Corners           30,000    296 100 30 300  
  Victor           15,000             5,000 400 150 160 1200  
Apr 5, 1843 West Bloomfield           15,000             1,400 300 175 120 1000 35
June 1835 Bristol             3,000             2,000 500 100 50 700  
Feb 25, 1799 Canandaigua           40,000             6,000 700 500 339 2000 1520
Nov 15, 1795 East Bloomfield           10,000             4,000 450 250 180 1500  
  TOTALS           93,500           18,400 2946 1525 974 7700 1555

 

THE FRIENDS - or Quakers, have, since, 1827, been separated into two distinct branches, known generally as Hicksite and Orthodox.  The former have a general meeting for the Republic and for Canada.  This is divided into yearly, quarterly, and monthly meetings.  New York State is embraced within the New York and Genesee yearly meetings.  In New York there are seven quarterly and thirty-one monthly meetings, and of the Genesee two quarterly and eight monthly meetings.  The Orthodox branch in New York have one half-yearly, fifteen quarterly, and forty-three monthly meetings.  The quarterly meetings in Farmington, this county, were established in 1810, and the number of monthly meetings is five.  The first meeting within New York was established in 1656 at Oyster Bay, by Richard SMITH and others, who had been banished from Boston.  The pioneer Friends were primarily disowned, but received back in 1794, organized a meeting which was long the only one west of Utica, and erected a meeting-house.  The Hicksites' church property is valued at four thousand three hundred dollars.  Seating capacity of one building, two thousand five hundred; of the smaller, two hundred.  The attendance is about one-third the membership, which is about one hundred and sixty.  The Orthodox branch have a house valued at three thousand dollars, seats for four hundred, and a membership of one hundred and forty-five.  The Friends are proverbially peaceful and temperate, and the county has no class whose lives better illustrate their practical faith. 

 

               Victor St. Patrick's Catholic Church                                           Canandaigua St. Mary's Catholic Church

Canandaigua, St. Mary's Convent

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCHES - develop a growth late but vigorous.  The societies have had harmonious co-operation and constant progression.  The student of history has been attracted by the migration upon the same lines of the population westward.  The void left by the removal of families has been filled by those from farther east, and with these changes has come in a class faithful to the Catholic church. The order has grown in numbers and as will be seen, holds a strong position in regard to wealth:

Name of Church $ Value of Seating  # of  Salary  $
Church & Lot Capacity Members of Clergy
St. Mary's, Richmond             7,300 200 100 400
St. Patrick's, Victor           10,000 300 170 0
West Bloomfield             2,500 250 0 0
St. Agnes's, Manchester             7,400 270 207 400
St. Mary's, Canandaigua           23,000 650 1300 500
St. Bridget's, East Bloomfield             1,600 500 400 500
            40,000 1200 1200 1000
TOTALS           87,300 3370 3377 8000

In addition to their values, the denomination have school property of value not less than twenty thousand dollars, and the future has much of promise. 

THE BAPTIST CHURCHES - of Ontario County have an origin not as early as some others, but their record is honorable, and deserving of full expression.  The earliest records, dating towards the commencement of the century, embrace the result of councils convened for purposes of organization.  So far as has been learned, the leading pioneer minister of the order was Elder Daniel IRISH, whose presence is invariably noted in the assemblies for church formation.  As soon as the "two or three were met together,"  and services had been held, the advisability of constituting a society was mooted.  The council was held, and the project received sanction.  The church of Bloomfield, organized June 13, 1796, with seventeen members, has priority.  A church was built in 1803.  The church of Bristol was organized February 7, 1805, with Solomon GOODALE, elder; and a second church of Bristol originated in 1821.  At the re-establishment of the First Baptist church in Phelps, during 1808, references are made which confirm the impression that a society there had been formed among the first.  The society lived up to the religious spirit of the age, and kindly reproof was invariably bestowed upon the erring.  The earliest and most interesting history of the society is lost in obscurity: that period which indicates trial and effort, the attempts to build houses of worship, and the succession of ministers.  Gradually, as time went by, these difficulties have been met, the seed has taken root, and the growth has been a permanence.  The fifty-first annual report of the Baptist Missionary Convention, of date October, 1858, gives the date of organization of the denomination in Ontario at 1814.  The church is then credited in this county with nineteen societies, as many ministers, and one thousand five hundred and forty-four members. The statistics of 1875 are as follows:

Name of Church $ Value of Value of Seating     Salary  $
Church Real Estate Capacity Attendance Members of Clergy
Naples, Naples Village             6,000  - 350 75 80 600
Manchester, Manchester             6,000             1,200 400 250 155 750
Phelps, Clifton Springs             4,000             1,000 200 150 86 750
Bristol, Bristol             2,000                500 400 100 50 none
Canandaigua Village           10,000  - 500 300 250 1500
Free Will Union Society             5,000  - 300 150 - 250
Gorham, Gorham             5,000             1,500 400 200 77 850
Gorham, Reed's Corners             8,500                800 300 150 50 400
Geneva Village             5,000   400 170 200 1200
TOTALS           46,500             5,000 3250 1545 948 6300

THE UNIVERSALISTS -  have several societies in Ontario County.  The statistics of the denomination are thus shown:

Name of Church $ Value of Value of Seating     Salary  $
Church Real Estate Capacity Attendance Members of Clergy
Victor, 1st Univer. Society           10,000             4,000 250 100 120 1200
Manchester, 1st Univ. Clifton Springs             8,000   250 115 47 900
Bristol, 1st Univer. Society             4,500             2,500 300 150 40 1000
Geneva Universalist             6,000   600 150   600
TOTALS           28,500             6,500 1410 515 207 3700

There is a Christian church located at Naples, whose church property has a valuation of four thousand two hundred dollars; a seating capacity of two hundred, with forty members.  Minister's salary, four hundred dollars. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCHES - early effected a lodgment, and not without the trying experiences of other denominations.  The Rev. Davenport PHELPS located at Geneva at a primitive period of settlement, and was the first clergyman at that point.   The history of Hobart College and the excellent records kept by the churches require no further mention in this connection than the tabular statement given:

Name of Church $ Value of Value of Seating     Salary  $
Church Real Estate Capacity Attendance Members of Clergy
Phelps, St. Paul's Mission             3,200   200 75 40  
Richmond, St. Paul's             5,500   300 30 50 400
Victor, Mission Church             4,000   150 50 25  
Manchester, St. John's             4,000             3,650 150 100 74 900
Canandaigua, St. John's           50,000             5,000 580 300 250 1200
East Bloomfield, St. Peter's             5,000                500 200 100 50 900
Geneva, St. Peter's           40,000             5,000 500 300 165 700
Geneva, Trinity           50,000             7,000 600 350 454 2000
TOTALS         161,700           21,150 2680 1305 1108 6100

 

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS for Ontario churches in 1865 gave as follows: The number of churches of all sects, 75; value of churches and lots, $382,150; other real estate, $32,870; seating capacity,  29,078; number attending, 13,480; number of members, 9,152; salaries of clergymen, including use of real estate, $36,780.    We give the summary of 1875:

No. of $ Value of Value of Seating     Salary  $
DENOMINATION Churches Church Real Estate Capacity Attendance Members of Clergy
Presbyterian 10         144,000           31,000        4,515         2,100       1,339       13,250
Methodist 18         157,350           55,450        7,050         3,950       2,362       13,400
Catholic 7           81,900           35,400        3,970         3,040       2,177         3,000
Congregational 7           97,500           22,200        2,946         1,525         985         7,600
Baptist 9           46,500             5,000        3,250         1,545         948         6,300
Episcopal 8         161,700           21,150        2,680         1,305       1,108         6,100
Universalist 4           28,500             6,500        1,410            515         297         3,700
Friends 3             7,300                300           800            200         303  
Union 2             2,700  -           450              85           12           125
Christian 1             3,000             1,200           200              40           40           400
Wesleyan 1             2,000             1,000           250              50           25  
TOTALS 70         732,450         179,200       27,521        14,355       9,507       53,875

 

THE COUNTY SABBATH-SCHOOL ASSOCIATION, which held its session at Victor, on June 20, 1876, proved conclusively the cooperative and powerful feeling of interest in this department of religious culture.  The report of the corresponding secretary gives 65 schools, 943 teachers, 5067 scholars, and 1834 in adult Bible-classes, making a total of 7844; conversions, 250; volumes in library, 14,000; amount of money raised for all purposes, $5101.  A retrospective view of the exclusive and hostile spirit of early times, compared with present concord and sympathy, must be cheering to the minds of all true Christians, as indicative of a progress towards perfect union.

 

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