History of Ontario Co., NY  

  Published 1878


Chapter XXVI       pg 68 - 76 

Kindly transcribed by Donna Walker Judge & Deborah Spencer

THE HISTORY OF HOBART COLLEGE, GENEVA, NY. (William Stevens PERRY, D.D., LL. D., President) 

EARLY in the present century, the academy at Fairfield, in Herkimer county, was among the most flourishing educational institutions in the State west of Albany.  In the year 1806, the Rev. Amos G. BALDWIN, who had just received deacon's orders at Utica, from the hands of the Right Reverend Benjamin MOORE, D.D., on his first visitation of western New York, began missionary labors in Fairfield, there being at that time in the whole of the State now comprised in the dioceses of western and central New York but two clergymen of the church.  These were the Rev. Davenport PHELPS, of Geneva, and the Rev. Jonathan JUDD, deacon, officiating in Utica and Paris.  The conviction was forced upon the mind of the Rev. Mr. BALDWIN, in the midst of his extended labors, that there was a "necessity of training up ' the sons of the soil ' in our institutions, in order to secure them to the church, and provide ministers for her altars."  (Baldwin MSS., in College Archives.)  "At that time," continues Mr. BALDWIN, "the schools were everywhere in the hands of non-Episcopalians, and we had few clergymen near the academies which were flourishing in western New York, and there was not a chartered college in this part of the State." 

The Fairfield academy occupied a large building erected for the double purpose of serving as a house of worship and a school.  In this academy the worthy missionary officiated on occasional Sundays, and speedily secured the support of a large portion of the community.  Perceiving the advantages likely to accrue to the church from the possession of the academy, after the organization of the parish had been effected and its prosperity assured, Mr. BALDWIN sought, in 1811, to obtain the aid of Trinity church, New York, to sustain a clergyman at Fairfield, the "application being grounded on the influence which the services of a clergyman would have on the minds of the youth educated in the academy there."  (Ibid.)  Writing to Bishop MOORE under date of October 8, 1811, Mr. BALDWIN proceeds:  "We do feel, my venerable diocesan, that in asking aid for the church in Fairfield, we are pleading the cause of the church in the western district of this State.  The academy in that place is very flourishing, and were a clergyman of learning and piety settled there, the young men educated in that seminary would have an opportunity of becoming acquainted with the church, and the advantages to the church would be great." (Ibid.) It was with this far-sighted vision that the excellent Mr. BALDWIN took the initiatory steps which resulted in the foundation of Hobart College in Geneva. 

A vacancy in the headship of the Fairfield academy occurring within a few months subsequent to the writing of this letter, immediate measures were taken to fill the vacancy with a clergyman of the church.  Petitions soliciting the aid of Trinity church, New York, were drawn up, and finally a plan was digested by the indefatigable BALDWIN, which was communicated to the Rev. Professor BOWDEN, D.D., of Columbia College, a leading clergyman of New York, and interested in the missionary operations of the Society for the Promotion of Religion and Learning, in that city.  The plan was as follows:  "The trustees of the academy authorize me to say that they will give the principal thereof $550 per annum, and allow him to instruct four divinity scholars free of charges for tuition.  The other part of the plan is that Trinity church gives to the church at Fairfield $250 per annum, and to the clergyman that may be settled then $250, as theological instructor in the institution, and that he divide among the divinity scholars $50 per annum, in the proportion he may think proper." (BALDWIN MSS.)  The resolutions adopted by the trustees of the academy, the plan of obtaining a collegiate charter was proposed, it being stipulated in the event of securing the aid desired from Trinity church, "that the president of said college, if a charter should be obtained, shall forever thereafter be an Episcopal clergyman."  

The plan thus warmly advocated by Mr. BALDWIN and the Fairfield trustee received the favorable notice of the leading members of the corporation of Trinity church.  The rector, the Rev. Dr. BEACH, the Honorable Messrs. Robert TROUP and Peter Augustus JAY, Thomas L. OGDEN, Esq., together with Professor BOWDEN and Bishop HOBART, who had succeeded to the episcopate of the State, won by the importunity of the earnest and far-sighted BALDWIN, entered heartily into the scheme proposed, and the grant from Trinity church, by means of which Fairfield academy was secured to the church, was obtained.  Subsequently the original grant of $500 per annum was increased to $750, so as to provide for an assistant in the work of instruction, it being a condition of the gift "that eight students shall always receive the whole course of their classical and literary education, and afterwards of their theological instruction, free of any charges or tuition."   (Thos. D. BURRALL's Report and Memoranda, 1868, p. 7.)   

The Rev. Bethel JUDD was the first principal appointed under this new arrangement, but in consequence of his removal to Connecticut, he failed to "fulfill his contract."  (BALDWIN, MSS.)   

The Rev. Virgil H. BARBER subsequently entered upon the charge of the academy, being succeeded in January, 1817, by the Rev. Daniel McDONALD, at that time rector of St. Peter's, Auburn.  With his incumbency began a new epoch in the history of the institution founded by the labors of BALDWIN, and shortly to be developed, on its transplanting to another site, into the free "college planned by the Fairfield academy trustees at the time of their first application for the aid of Trinity church, New York. 

In the year 1817, the subject of theological education, which had been brought prominently before the church as a matter of vital importance, received the careful consideration of the triennial general convention, and measures were taken for the establishment of a "general theological seminary."  The following general convention, in 1820, ordered the removal of this school from New York to New Haven, Connecticut.  In the autumn of the same year the diocesan convention of New York proceeded to make provision for theological education, and instituted "The Protestant Episcopal Theological Education Society in the State of New York."  (Journal of N.Y. Diocesan Convention, 1820, p. 25.)  To this society was intrusted the power of establishing a theological school or schools, professorships and scholarships, and, in fact, the adoption of any measures-that might tend to the promotion of theological education.  The bishop, in his address, had indicated the policy of affording "facilities for retired and for a public education for the ministry."  To secure this the bishop suggested that "it may be wise to make theological endowments both in the country and in the city."  To this idea the bishop again and again recurred, and it was the strong conviction forced upon him by his wide experience, of the necessity for the provision of the means of theological education at various centres of population and influence, that secured for Geneva College the bishop unvarying friendship and support. 

Before the next convention, measures had been taken, under the auspices of the new Theological Educational Society, with the approval of Trinity church, and at the suggestion of the bishop, by which a "branch" of the theological schools established in New York city was instituted at Geneva.  The vestry of Trinity on the 8th of January, 1821, resolved to transfer the annual grant to Fairfield, the Geneva school; and, a month later, the managers of the society definitely selected Geneva as the site of the "branch" seminary, on condition that the inhabitants of this village would erect a suitable building for the accommodatic  of the theological students.  The same month, under date of February 15, 1821, the following subscription paper was circulated in the village of Geneva, viz:

"The vestry of Trinity church, in the city of New York, having heretofore liberally endowed the academy at Fairfield, in Montgomery county, on certain conditions, have recently agreed to transfer the endowment to the academy established at Geneva,  (We give, as of special interest in this connection, from the originals preserved among the papers of Hobert College, the list of "Subscriptions to Geneva Academy, 11th January, 1813,"  and a copy of the charter of the institution, thus merged into Geneva College, as stated in the text:   



"Whereas, the general diffusion of knowledge, in a country where the government emanates immediately from the people, is of the utmost importance to the preservation of liberty, and an academy having for many years been established in the village of Geneva, and been in a considerable degree useful; and, whereas, we the subscribers are confident its usefulness and respectability may be much promoted by an increase of its funds, and the procuring its incorporation under the regents of the University of the State of New York, and becoming subject to the visitation of the said regents,--- 

"We, the subscribers, for the purpose of increasing the funds of the said academy, promise severally and not jointly to pay to the trustees, hereafter to be appointed for the said academy, for the use of the said academy, the sums opposite our respective names, or to secure said sum by mortgage on sufficient real estate to the said trustees and their successors forever, so that the interest thereof shall be annually paid to the said trustess and their successors forever, for the use of the said academy, and, in default thereof, the real estate so mortgaged, on which said interest has not been paid, may be sold by the said trustees or their successors, and the said sum of money, with the interest so secured by said mortgage, retained by said trustees, with the costs, for the use of the said academy.

"[Signed] January 11th, 1813.


Polydore B. WISNER......................................................One hundred dollars.

*H.H. BOGERT...................................................................  do.

*R.W. STODDARD............................................................ Fifty dollars.

*Samuel COLT................................................................. One hundred dollars.

*William HORTSEN......................................................... Fifty dollars.

do...................................................................................... do.

*Jonathan DOANE........................................................... One hundred dollars.

*Thomas Lowthrop & Co...............................................  do.

*James REES.................................................................... do.

*James CARTER............................................................... do.

*John NICHOLAS.............................................................. do.

*David COOK ..................................................................... do.

*John WOODS................................................................... do.

*Thomas D. BURRELL...................................................... Fifty dollars.

Joseph STOW.................................................................. do.

*Walter GRIEVE................................................................... do.

*Robert SOOT...................................................................... do.

*F.A. DE ZENG....................................................................... Fifty dollars on demand.

*William TIPPETTS.............................................................. Fifty dollars.

Abner COLE........................................................................ do.

*A. DOX.................................................................................. One hundred dollars.

One thousand six hundred dollars.   

 "Mortgages have been received  from all except three, not marked, agreeable to the written arrangement.

"June 24, 1822.

H. H. B., late Treasurer." 

"The Regents of the University of the State of New York.

"To all to whom these presents shall or may come, greeting :

"Whereas, Jedediah CHAPMAN, Samuel COLT, Polydore B. WISNER, John NICHOLAS, Davenport PHELPS, James REES, H.H. BOGERT, Walter GRIEVE, Robert SOOT, F.A. De ZENG, Thomas LOTHROP, John WOODS, William HORTSEN, David COOK, Jonathan DOANE, William TIPPETTS, Abner COLE, Thomas D. BURRALL, R.W. STODDARD, A. DOX, by an instrument in writing, under their hands and seals, bearing date the twelfth day of January one thousand eight hundred and thirteen, after stating that they had contributed more than one-half in value of the real and personal property and estate, collected or appropriated for the use and benefit of the academy erected at the village of Geneva, in the county of Ontario, did make application to us, the said regents, that the said academy might be incorporated and become subject to the visitation of us and our successors, and that the Rev. Jedediah CHAPMAN, Polydore B. WISNER, James REES, Samuel COLT, John NICHOLAS, Herman H. BOGERT, Robert SOOT, David COOK, Thomas LOWTHROP, Jonathan DOANE, Walter GRIEVE, William TIPPETTS, and Frederick A. De ZING might be trustees of the said academy, by the name of "The trustees of the Geneva academy." 

"Now, know ye that we, the said regents, having inquired into the allegations contained in the instrument aforesaid and found the same to be true, and that a proper building for said academy has been erected and finished and paid for, and that funds have been obtained and well secured, producing an annual net income of at least one hundred dollars, and conceiving the said academy calculated for the promotion of literature, do by these presents, pursuant to the statute in such cases made and provided, signify our approbation of the incorporation of the said Reverend Jedediah CHAPMAN, Polydore B. WISNER, James REES, Samuel COLT, Thomas LOWTHROP, John NICHOLAS, Herman H. BOGERT, Albert SOOT, David COOK, Jonathan DOANE, Walter GRIEVE, William TIPPETTS, and Frederick A. DE ZENG, by the name of "The trustees of the Geneva academy,' being the name mentioned in and by the said request in writing, on condition that the principal or estate producing the said income shall never be diminished or otherwise appropriated, and that the said income shall be applied only to the maintenance or salaries of the professors or tutors of the academy. 

"In testimony whereof, we have caused our common seal to be hereunto affixed, the twenty-ninth day of March, in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirteen.  [1813]

L.S.    [Signed] "Daniel D, TOMPKINS."'



"Charter of the Geneva Academy.

"State of New York, Secretary's Office, Recorded in Lib. Deeds

"M. R. R., page 482, etc., the 25th day of February, 1814.

"Fees, $1, paid by Mr. BOGERT


"ARCH'D. CAMPBELL, Dep. Secretary." 

In the county of Ontario, with the intent to use all practicable means to raise the academy to the highly useful station of a college; the transfer, however, to be subject to the reasonable condition that the inhabitants of the village of Geneva and its vicinity shall furnish at their own expense a suitable lot of land and building thereon.  Now, we, the subscribers, in consideration of the premises, and to secure the transfer of the said endowment to the trustees of the Geneva academy, do hereby severally promise and agree to and with the said trustees, to pay them the sums of money set opposite to our names respectively, and to do and perform the several acts and undertakings hereafter promised by us respectively, at such times in such manner as shall be required of us by the said trustees for the purposes aforesaid." 

To this paper were affixed the names of Samuel COLT, James REES, F.A. DE ZENG, Abraham DOX, William HORTSEN, J. DOX, Robert W. STODDARD, Thos. D. BURRALL, H.H. BOGART, H. DWIGHT, Nicholas AYRAULT, David HUDSON, and others, resident in the village of Geneva. 

In the month of February, 1821, Bishop HOBART "visited the western part of the State, induced to this journey at this unfavorable season principally with a view to consecrate the churches at Rochester and Buffalo, and to make arrangements with respect to the branch theological school which had been fixed at Geneva."  (Address to Convention, Journal 1821, p. 14.)  On the 25th of April the school was formally established at Geneva, under the charge of the Rev. Daniel McDONALD, D.D., who had been the head of the Fairfield academy, and with the co-operation and assistance of the Rev. Orin CLARK, D.D., the able and learned rector of Trinity church, Geneva. 

On the 11th of June the branch theological school was opened in the vestry school-house belonging to Trinity church, Geneva, and standing in the rear of the church, and nine young men were reported as in attendance, with the prospect of a speedy increase in numbers. 

In his address to the convention of the diocese, in 1821, Bishop HOBART thus refers to the measures which had been taken in furtherance of his plan for the promotion of theological education: 

"The Protestant Episcopal Theological Education Society, established by the last convention, has gone into operation, and the report of the trustees, which will be laid before you, will inform you of their proceedings, and of the present state of the schools which they have founded.  The principal theological school is placed in the city of New York, and a branch of it in the village of Geneva, in the western part of the State.  The reasons for this arrangement, by which are secured to the candidates for orders the advantages of a retired and of a more public education for the ministry, having been detailed in my address to the last convention, it is unnecessary to repeat them.  It is proper, however, to observe, that it is not designed to consider these institutions as entirely distinct, but to afford to those students who, from preference or from circumstances of peculiar convenience, have pursued their studies in the branch school at Geneva, an opportunity of completing or revising their course in the theological school in the city of New York.  By this arrangement they will enjoy the advantages which retirement affords for diligent application, and for the formation of those serious dispositions and habits which are essential to the ministry, as well as the benefits resulting from the theological establishment in New York, where the number of the clergy and the congregations of the church, and the opportunity of more extended social intercourse, will afford to the candidates for orders peculiar facilities for strengthening and refining their minds for obtaining that knowledge of human nature which is so important and useful, and for improving themselves in the performance of the various offices of the desk and the pulpit. 

"In the city of New York, Columbia College, which is constantly rising in reputation, affords advantages inferior to no other institution in the Union, for the studies preparatory to the ministry; and the corporation of Trinity church having transferred the annuity granted to the academy at Fairfield to a similar institution at Geneva, opportunities will be thus furnished for these preparatory studies. 

"The handsome stone building which is erecting for the use of the academy, in which also accommodations are to be afforded for the theological school, is situated in the village of Geneva, immediately on the bank of the Seneca lake, commanding a view of this extensive and beautiful sheet of water, of the cultivated shores that confine it, and of the mountains that bound the distant prospect.  It is considered by all who have viewed it as one of the most interesting situations which are anywhere to be found. 

"Its relative advantages are not less important.  Geneva is situated in the midst of a very populous, fertile, and highly cultivated country, having a water communication of a few miles with the grand canal which passes through the State, and being thus of easy access from the extensive countries watered by the western lakes, and from those on the Atlantic border.  And, indulging the reasonable expectation that the academy there will, at some future period, be advanced to the privileges of a college, we must be forcibly struck with the immense advantages of the contiguity of our theological school to an institution of this description.  The principal school in the city of New York, and the branch school at Geneva, both enjoying the advantages of colleges in which there will be no influence unfriendly to the church, will be placed under as commanding circumstances as could well be expected." (Journal of Convention, 1821, pp. 20, 21.)   

 At the same convention the board of managers of the Theological Education Society reported as follows: 

 "In the course of the last winter, several communications were received from the vestry of the church and the academy at Fairfield, and from the rector, vestry, and the academy at Geneva---also from the corporation of Trinity church, New York, expressing their willingness to transfer a certain annual grant from the institution in Fairfield to one in Geneva, should the board deem it expedient to fix their interior school at a latter place.  On mature consideration this change was determined upon, and the western branch of the seminary was permanently located at that village, and is styled the ' Interior School of Geneva. ' 

 "The professorships for the Interior School of Geneva are as follows:


 "A Professorship of the Interpretation of Scripture, of Ecclesiastical History, and of the Nature, Ministry, and Polity of the Church.


 "A Professorship of Biblical Learning.


 "A Professorhip of Systematic Divinity and Pastoral Theology. 

 "As soon as the funds of the society admit, the salaries of these professors will be at least $800 per annum; and in the mean time, and while they are engaged in other duties and receiving other emoluments, their salaries are to be fixed by the board of managers, as circumstances may render expedient. 

"The office of librarian for the Interior School is also instituted, with the same duties as are assigned to the librarian of the school in the city of New York. 

"Until statutes shall be prescribed for the regulation of the two schools respectively, they are to be governed by such rules as the professors in each, with the approbation of the bishop, shall adopt.

  "The following professors have been appointed for the seminary in this city, viz:  The Right Rev. John Henry HOBART, Professor of Systematic Divinity and Pastoral Theology; Mr. Clement C. MOORE, Professor of Biblical Learning, the department of Interpretation of Scripture being added; Mr. Gulian C. VERPLANCK, Professor of the Evidences of Revealed Religion, and of Moral Science in its Relations to Theology; and the Rev. Benjamin T. ONDERDONK, Professor of the Nature, Ministry, and Polity of the Church, the department of Ecclesiastical History being annexed; and the Rev. Henry J. FELTUS is the librarian.  For the Interior School of Geneva, the following are the appointments made by this board, viz:  The Rev. Daniel M' DONALD, Professor of the Interpretation of Scripture, Ecclesiastical History, and the Nature, Ministry, and Polity of the Church, and librarian; the Rev. John REED, Professor of Biblical Learning; and the Rev. Orin CLARK, Professor of Systematic Divinity and Pastoral Theology." 

From a report of the professors in Geneva, it appears that two of them commenced their duties in June last, that there are now ten students under their care, and that a building is in progress which will contain thirty rooms for students and a chapel, to "be ready for the reception of theological and classical students on the first of May next."  The report of these professors is also added:   

"Report of the Professors of the Branch Theological School at Geneva. 

 "To the Right Rev. Bishop HOBART, president of the board of managers of the Protestant Episcopal Theological Education Society, in the diocese of New York, the professors in the branch theological school at Geneva respectfully report that--- 

 "The branch theological school was opened in the vestry school-house of Trinity church, Geneva, on the 11th day of June last, and the following young gentlemen, intending to enter the ministry of the church, have been admitted members of the school, viz:  Marvin CADY, Richard SALMON, William W. BOSTWICK, Orsamus H. SMITH, Burton H. HICKOX, John A. CLARK, John GAVOTT, Thaddeus GARLICK, and Ira WHITE.  In addition to which, Henry GREGORY, Alanson BENNETT, and Seth DAVIS are daily expected. 

"The trustees of Geneva academy are now erecting, in an eligible situation on the bank of Seneca lake, a commodious stone building, (Now called "Geneva Hall," the oldest of the college buildings), containing thirty rooms for students, besides a convenient chapel.  The building will be ready for the reception of theological and classical students on the first of next May.

"Daniel McDONALD, Professor of Ecclesiastical

History and Scripture Interpretation.

"Orin CLARK, Professor of Systematic Theology. 

"The board of managers have also directed their attention to the munificent bequest of the late Mr. SHERRED.  They have made arrangements for appropriating it in such manner as shall most securely effect the objects intended by the liberal donor.  Twenty thousand dollars are appropriated to the support of a professorship in the school of the city of New York, which shall bear his name; $10,000 to the support of a professorship in the branch interior school at Geneva, also to bear his name.  And further (should the board of trustees approve the measure), two sums of $5000 each are appropriated to complete the establishment of the two first professorships of $20,000 each, towards each of which $15,000 shall be paid by any congregation or society, or individual or association of individuals, in the city of New York, on or before the 1st of May, 1822, and two further sums of $3000 each (should the board of trustees approve) are appropriated to complete the establishment of the two first professorships of $10,000 each in the interior  school at Geneva, towards each of which $7000 shall be paid by any congregation or society, or individual or association of individuals, not resident in the city of New York, on or before the 1st of May, 1822:  the interest only of these sums to be applied to the above objects respectively." 

In furtherance of the measures already taken by the Education Society, or indicated as of importance in their report, the convention 

 "Resolved, That the proceedings of the said society, in the establishment, under the authority of the Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this State, of the seminary for theological education in this diocese, and in the organization of two schools for this purpose, one in the city of New York, and the other at Geneva, as detailed in the said report, be, and they are hereby, approved and confirmed by this convention." 

The convention at the same time: 

 "Resolved, that this convention will concur in any proper plan for consolidating the said seminary with any seminary, for the like purpose, which the general convention may, in its wisdom, see fit to establish and permanently fix within this diocese; all the essential provisions and regulations of the seminary now established, under the authority of the convention of this State, being preserved, and a just influence in the management and control of the general institution being secured to each diocese within which contributions may be obtained, or donations made towards its funds.  Provided, that the terms of such consolidation be approved by the bishop of this diocese, and the clerical and lay deputies from the convention of the church in this State to the approaching special General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States; and that those terms be submitted to, and also approved, by the trustees of the Protestant Episcopal Theological Education Society in the State of New York, or the board of managers acting under their authority."  

 A special general convention was called to determine the questions arising from the "Sherred bequest," referred to above.  This convention was held at Philadelphia, October 30, 1821, and on the 2d of November a compromise of the conflicting interests was effected:  the general theological seminary was removed to New York, and permanently established in that city, while the "Interior School of Geneva," by the terms of the compromise, became a "branch" of the Geneva Theological Seminary of the American church. 

The success which had attended the establishment of the theological school at Geneva emboldened the friends of the church in this village to secure a college of their own.  An interesting letter from the Rev. Drs. McDONALD and CLARK, to the bishop of the diocese, gives us the inner history of this incipient movement towards a college and theological school combined.  We print it from the Hobart MSS. in the possession of the general convention of the church:  

"Geneva, 8th December, 1821. 

"RT. REV. SIR,---We take the liberty of stating to you the present situation of our academic school, the difficulties which meet us, and what we suppose to be the best means of procuring relief.  We have tried the experiment of the academy since June last, and have not found the results to answer our expectations.  Not more than eight scholars, on an average, have attended the school, besides the theological students.  The receipts for tuition have been only about fifty-seven dollars, leaving a deficit of about two hundred and seventy dollars to be paid by the trustees, who have a full call for all the funds that they can raise to finish the academy; so that unless some plan can be devised for our relief, the academic school must be necessity cease.  The following causes tend to prevent us from having more scholars:  1.  It is industriously insinuated that this is exclusively a theological school, thus some are prevented from attending.  2.  It is also insinuated that we will receive none but language scholars.  3.  An opposition school is maintained in the village.  You can readily judge what class of religionists try to do us this harm.  To counteract the evil of these obstructions, we propose to appoint an assistant teacher, who shall keep a regular day school for reading, spelling, arithmetic, and writing, and admit quite young scholars.  Such a course, we think (and we have the concurrent opinion of the chief churchmen here), would repel the insinuation that we are merely a theological school, and must have everything Episcopal; that we refuse all English studies below collegiate; would break up the opposition school, and, what is of great importance, would be a nursery always at hand and under our own direction to form somewhat of a supply of scholars for the classical department.  But as this school will do no more than defray its own expenses, and must be adopted at present for self-defense, we think it necessary that some different division of the principal's time should be made, and a different source be provided from which he can derive a part of his salary.  It is proposed that he should devote half of each day to the classical department, and the other half to the theological; and that the theological school in New York permit him to draw upon their treasurer for two hundred and fifty dollars per annum in lieu of the same sum now charged upon the trustees of Geneva academy.  The salary will then be paid as follows:  five hundred dollars from Trinity church; two hundred and fifty from the theological fund, and two hundred and fifty from the trustees of the Geneva academy.  Such an arrangement would leave the academy the following annual expenses:  two hundred and fifty to the principal, two hundred and fifty to the assistant, five hundred,---together with repairs and incidental expenses; and we believe that the academy can do no more, certainly not at present, than meet these demands.  We, therefore, take the liberty of suggesting to you, as president, and through you to the trustees of the theological school, their committee of finance, or any other committee that can take cognizance of the proposition, that they will direct the principal of the Geneva academy, as being professor in the branch theological school, that he devote one-half of his time to hearing theological recitations, explaining or lecturing before the theological class, in conformity with the duties of his office as professor, and receive from the theological fund two hundred and fifty dollars per annum in lieu of the same sum now paid to him by the trustees of the Geneva academy.  The advantages of devoting so much time to the theological scholars are:  We have found, by experience and observation, that our lectures should not be before the school of unconcerned students.  If before the school, many idle remarks will be retailed by such students as are not churchmen; for it is impossible, before the theological class, not to call in question the opinions of others, and jealousy is much alive on such points.  The expense that devolves on theological students being considerable, seems to demand that they should have as much of the professors' time and attention as can well be spared.  By making the proposed arrangement, we can probably proceed one year (until the funds are all called into action), without being very burdensome to the theological treasury, less burdensome than if we proceed as we now are; because the academical part does find it extremely difficult to be supported, while the academy is unfinished and the debts unpaid. 

 "Further, we would remark that we conceive our plan to be a reasonable one, when it is considered that the trustees could hardly have suspected that any expense would have to be incurred by them during the building of the academy, save for the building; and this remark is of more weight when it is recollected that scarcely none but churchmen have subscribed anything, and that some persons, not churchmen, have manifested a disposition not to pay their subscriptions, alleging that the thing is altogether Episcopal, in which thing they claim to have been deceived.  Now we know from what source all this springs, but still the burden lies hard on the churchmen; they will do what they promised, and they can do no more.  The academy will cost seven thousand, and the land is worth two thousand more; nine thousand, all of which, save about five hundred, comes of churchmen.  We hope you will give us an immediate answer, or at least your opinion of what we may safely expect, for we must commence on some different plan from the present one, in the first week in January next. 

"We are laboring with a project for a college here, but not having mastered any plan, we say but little now; hereafter, and that soon, we will send you a detailed account of our scheme.  In the mean time we hope a few of your thoughts, and those of our energetic friend, Mr. VERPLANCK, will be turned to the subject of an Episcopal college at Geneva. 

"We are, etc., most respectfully,

[Signed]  "Daniel McDONALD.

[Signed]  "Orin CLARK." 

Recurring to the matter referred to at the close of this interesting letter, the two professors were shortly ready with their plan for Geneva College. 

"Geneva, December 13, 1821.

"RT. REV. SIR,---We take the liberty of communicating to you our views relative to a college in this place.  The necessity of having one west of Clinton is obvious, and some other place will soon advance pretenses to it if we do not.  We shall say nothing to a person as well acquainted with the west as you are, relative to our claims, founded on local circumstances.  But the necessity of our having a college is pressing.  A college gives great weight and influence to that denomination that has it and manages it well.  We could educate more young men, and better, too, in a college than in an academy; because it would be popular, and possessed of better discipline.  Such is the charm of a diploma to a youth, that he will ever prefer a college to an academy.  Hence some will leave us.  A diploma, like an oath in disputes, cuts off all controversy, and the possessor is admitted by the world as competent, without further examination.  But what is worthy of deep attention in ecclesiastical concerns is this:  he that goes to college must, and thinks he must, proceed through regularly.  He that is a member of an academy thinks himself at liberty to study as much as he pleases and no more.  Hence a college is indispensably necessary to us if we mean to have a learned clergy.  Fifty thousand dollars, exclusive of academy buildings and lot, will be required by the regents, before they will permit  us to exercise college functions.  To obtain this sum to the satisfaction of the regents, we propose:  1st.  To get the regents to accept of the Sherred professorship as a part of the required fund (if acceded to by the trustees of the theological school), which is $10,000.  2d.  We hope Trinity church would, in case we could obtain a charter, convert her donation into an annuity, which would count $11,000 more.  3d.  We would hope to have another professorship here, $10,000 more, making $31,000.  We think $9000 could be filled with subscriptions of lands, and some lands might perhaps be obtained from the State.  And $10,000, the remainder, must be solicited through the county, secured on property, where the principal was not paid down. 

"The professors in the theological school might be officers in the college.  Thus, the president might receive the stipend from Trinity church.  There might be a professor of divinity, as in New Haven; and the professor of ecclesiastical history might be professor of languages and history generally.  The professor of divinity might also be professor of logic and rhetoric. 

"We press, and think there is more need of pressure, upon this point of a college from this consideration:  Without flattery, we think that the whole weight of the theological branch here rests upon you.  Sir, you are its author and supporter.  But what guaranty have we of your life, of the good will of your successor, or of the favorable views of other States towards us after your exertions shall have ceased by the course of nature?  But if we had a college with the proper professors, sanctioned by the trustees of the theological school, we should be safe, and always have the means of educating young men ourselves.  Party feelings could do little mischief to a college, but might destroy a branch theological school. 

"This winter seems to present a combination of favorable circumstances for us to apply.  Mr. VERPLANCK is in the Legislature; no application of the kind is pending.  The census is recent, by which the importance of this western world is fresh in the minds of all; and the west is favorable to the majority in politics.  Our friends here are decidedly for making an application this winter.  Colonel TROUP thinks there will be no difficulty in obtaining a charter.  There will probably be difficulties in obtaining the charter as we want it.  We want it to be our own, but the property given must secure the control of it. 

"We hope to hear from you touching this point; in the mean time we shall open communication with Mr. VERPLANCK, with whom we trust you will consult, and assist us to do so.  The legal course of procedure in the actual application is pointed out in the statutes, but we wish to have the thing well understood by the church before we move, that there may be unity in motion. 

"We are, with great respect and obedience.

 "Your much obliged and dutiful presbyters,

[Signed]  "D. McDONALD.

[Signed]  "Orin CLARK."

With the bishop's approval, and in accordance with the views so ably expressed in the letters written by Professors McDONALD and CLARK to their diocesan on the 22d of January, 1822, the trustees of the Geneva academy petitioned the regents of the university for a college charter.  The petition was as follows:  

To the Regents of the University of the State of New York.

"The petition of the trustees of the Geneva academy most respectfully sheweth:  That your petitioners, solicitous for the prosperity of the institution with whose interests they are intrusted, and satisfied that the step they contemplate is the only effectual means of securing the ends for which it was established, have determined to make an effort to procure for it such endowments as they trust may, in the estimation of your honorable body, entitle it to the important powers and privileges of a college. 

"The necessity of such an institution in this part of the country cannot but be obvious to all who have the least acquaintance with the extent, resources, and population of the western counties of this State.  The simple fact that there are, in the comtemplated district of country, more than half a million of people whose average distance from any college is more than one hundred miles, is sufficient, it is presumed, to put this point beyond question.  Another instance of a population of equal extent who are so far removed from the advantages of such an institution does not, it is confidently believed, exist in the United States. 

"Your petitioners are aware of the prevalence of an opinion that the multiplication of colleges is unfavorable to the advancement of literature and science, and that the number already chartered is sufficient for all the purposes of public education.  But this idea is certainly incorrect, except in places where they are located so near as to interfere with each other, and cannot apply in the case under consideration, as Geneva is situated at such a distance from Clinton as must preclude the apprehension of any injury to the college at that place by the establishment of a like institution at Geneva. 

"In a general view the idea is at variance with both reason and fact.  No principle can be more obvious than that the diffusion of knowledge and the advantages of learning will be in proportion to the facilities afforded for acquiring them.  But the fact that the most flourishing and respectable colleges in the Union are situated in those States whose population is far less than that of the contemplated district, is an ample refutation of the objection. 

"Your petitioners, sensible that private and local interest ought ever to yield to considerations of public good, have been guided solely by a regard to this object in naming Geneva as the proper place for a college in the western district, and they assert, without fear of contradiction, that no spot more eligible in all respects can be selected within its limits.  It possesses all the local advantages that can be desired for a literary institution.  In its position it is central, and is easily accessible, by means of the lakes and Erie canal, to a vast population.  It is surrounded by a country of great fertility, abundant in every production that can contribute to the wealth and comfort of its inhabitants, and in beauty and healthfulness is not surpassed by any place in this or any other country. 

"Upon the whole, your petitioners are confident that when your honorable body shall take into consideration the destitute situation of this part of our State, its great and increasing population, and the great advantages to be derived to it from a well regulated and liberally endowed college, the only question which will present itself to your deliberation will be whether we have a reasonable prospect of raising funds sufficient to render such an institution useful and respectable.  As to this point, your petitioners beg leave to state that they entertain no fears, and they would cherish the hope that what they have already done may be viewed as a pledge of their success in the accomplishment of this important object. 

They have, as trustees of the academy, property, well secured, to the amount of ...............................$1,500

Also a lot, for buildings, of eight acres, valued at ...............................................................................2,500

On which they have erected a large stone edifice, containing a chapel and rooms for the accommodation of sixty students..............................................................................................................................................7,000

They also receive an annuity from the corporation of Trinity church, New York, of seven hundred and fifty dollars per annum, for the support of a principal and assistant in the academy, which, it is expected, would be rendered permanent to the president of the college, and which arises from a principal of not less than.............................................................10,714

                                                                                                                                                 Total                        $21,714

"In addition to which they have encouragement of aid from other sources, from which they feel justified in calculating with confidence upon raising funds within the term of three years to the amount of more than fifty thousand dollars, and which shall produce annually more than three thousand dollars. 

"Wherefore your petitioners humbly pray your honorable body to grant them college powers, to take effect at the expiration of three years from the date of the grant, provided your petitioners within that period shall acquire permanent funds as your honorable body shall deem sufficient for the important objects of collegiate education. 

"And your petitioners will ever pray. 

"By order of the board of trustees of Geneva academy.

[Signed]  "James REES, "Senior Trustee. (College archives.) 

"Geneva, January 22, 1822."

The result of this application appears in the following document on file among the college archives: 

"In pursuance of a resolution of the regents of the University of the State of New York, passed April 10, 1822, it is hereby certified that the regents have declared their approbation of the plan on which it is intended to found and provide for a college at Geneva, in the county of Ontario, and that the term of three years be allowed for completing the same; and if at the expiration of that time it shall appear to the satisfaction of the regents that the said plan has been executed, and that permanent funds, producing annually the sum of four thousand dollars or upwards, for the benefit of said institution, have been properly secured, the said regents have further declared that the said institution shall thereupon be incorporated as a college according to the laws of the State and the regulations of the regents. 

"In witness whereof the seal of the said regents is hereunto affixed at the city of Albany, the 16th day of April, 1823. 

"Attest:  [L.S.]  [Signed]  "Gideon HAWLEY, Secretary. 

"N.B..---The term of three years commenced on the 10th day of April, 1822.

[L.S.]  "G. HAWLEY, Secretary." 

A hurried letter (from the unpublished Hobart MSS, in the keeping of the general convention of the church) from the Rev. William B. LACEY, D.D., Rector of St. Peter's, Albany, to Bishop HOBART, gives the secret history of this step: 

"Albany, April 10, 1822. "RT, REV. SIR,---The regents have this moment decided (five against three) to grant the Geneva petition, on condition that the corporation raise a fund that shall produce an annual income of four thousand dollars.  So I trust we shall have an Episcopal college in the State of New York." 

A letter written the following day by the Hon. William A. DUER to the bishop intimates that in the case of the Ithaca petition, granted on the same terms, the pecuniary requirement was considered as effectually precluding the possibility of the petitioners' success.  In view of the strenuous opposition made to the Geneva project, to which the Hobart correspondence bears ample testimony, it may be that there were hopes that a like failure might attend both projects.

 An interesting letter from the bishop, which we give from the original MS, preserved among the college files, throws further light upon the history of this interesting period: 

"New York, April 15, 1822 

"MY DEAR SIR,---You must not suppose because you have not heard from me that I have been indifferent to the application from Geneva for a college.  The moment I heard of it I took all the measures in my power to promote its success, and addressed letters to several of the regents, and in some cases, I believe, with effect.  You are much indebted for the success of the application to Mr. DUER and Mr. VERPLANCK, particularly the former, who brought in the report to the regents, and I think it would be well for yourself and Mr. CLARK and some of the friends of the church at Geneva to write to him a letter of thanks.  It is unfortunate that Ithaca is connected with you.  But there was no help for it.  They will find it difficult, I should think, to raise four thousand dollars per annum, and I am afraid this will be difficulty with you.  Means, however, must be devised for surmounting it. 

 "You, who know how much I have thought and how much I have planned and labored for this object, can readily conceive my gratification at seeing it thus far accomplished,---sooner, indeed, than I could have expected.  Providence has favored us.  I am the more gratified, inasmuch as I have found it difficult to make the clergy and others in this quarter feel as I have felt on the subject.  And even now M. and W., etc., seem to care little about it.  It will give unfeigned pleasure, however, to Bishop Bowen, of South Carolina, who recently wrote to me, expressing, as he has often done, his deep sense of the importance of our having a college, and wishing success to the plan in relation to Geneva. . . .

"The branch theological school is, as you may suppose, not popular with many, and it was not an easy matter to obtain for it the arrangements which have been made.  As our income will this year fall short of our expenditures, I have been afraid to press more for Geneva than has been obtained. . . .

"The organization of the college, particularly with regard to the trustees who are to be appointed, and other matters, will require a great deal of deliberation, as much will depend on these measures.  I expect, God willing, to be at the westward this summer, and conclude it will be well for me to spend some days at Geneva. . .  

"Very truly and affectionately yours,

"The Rev. Dr. McDONALD."  "J. H. HOBART. 

In the report on the state of the church, at the next general convention in 1823, it is referred to as a matter of public congratulation to the whole church, "that there is now a prospect of securing at Geneva, in this diocese (New York), what has so long been a desideratum in our church---a college, to be under the management and direction of its members." 

Warmly as Bishop Hobart had espoused the scheme of a "branch" theological seminary at Geneva, the plan was not generally "popular," as the bishop frankly confessed, and the next general convention in 1823 recommended to the trustees "to reduce the expenses of the seminary by abolishing the branch school at Geneva."  (Journal of the General Convention, 1823, p. 53.)  This could not properly be done without some equivalent; and to enable the trustees of the general theological seminary to effect it, the trustees of the Protestant Episcopal Society for Promoting Religion and Learning in the State of New York, in February, 1824, agreed to advance to the trustees of the seminary eight thousand dollars, or to secure the annual interest of that sum.  The trustees of the seminary received from the several parties concerned at Geneva, a formal renunciation of all claims on the seminary, secured the annual interest of eight thousand dollars at six per cent towards the endowment of the proposed college, and in return to the Protestant Episcopal Society, gave to its trustees four scholarships in the seminary. (Proceedings of the Trustees of the General Theological Seminary, July 1824, pp. 7-9.)   

This instrument of renunciation we append in full, as it forms one of the important links in the chain connecting Hobart College with the venerable Society for the Promotion of Religion and Learning, from which it has received so many proofs of interest and support. 

     "To all to whom these presents shall come or may concern: 

"We, the trustees of the Geneva academy, the rector, churchwardens, and vestrymen of Trinity church at Geneva, Orin CLARK, rector of the said church and professor in the branch theological school heretofore established at Geneva, in connection with the general theological seminary of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States, Daniel McDONALD, lately principal of the Geneva academy, and professor in the same branch theological school, and Samuel COLT and William S. DE ZENG,  a committee charged with the collection of funds for the permanent endowment of the new college at Geneva, send greeting. 

"Whereas, by a certain instrument of writing under our seals, dated the twentieth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four, we the several parties above named, acting for ourselves and on behalf of all others interested in the branch theological school above mentioned, did forever renounce all connection between the said general seminary and branch school, and all claims and demands by or on the part of the said branch school upon the said general seminary, on condition that the said general seminary should cause the sum of eight thousand dollars to be appropriated towards the permanent endowment of the new college then proposed to be established at Geneva, or should secure to its use and benefit the interest of that sum perpetually, in half-yearly payments, at the rate of six per centum per annum. 

"And whereas, the said then-proposed college has since been incorporated, and the said general theological seminary has since caused the yearly interest of eight thousand dollars, payable half-yearly, at the rate of six per centum per annum, to be secured to the use and benefit of the said college by means of a grant for that purpose made by the Protestant Episcopal Society for Promoting Religion and Learning in the State of New York, and an appropriation of real estate satisfactorily assuring the due payment of the said interest, which grant and appropriation we have accepted and do accept as a full performance of the condition above mentioned by and on the part of the said general seminary.  Now, therefore, know ye that we, the several parties above named, acting for ourselves respectively, and for and on behalf of all other persons and bodies corporate in any wise interested or concerned in the premises, in consideration of the said grant and appropriation, and of the sum of one dollar to each of us in hand, paid by the trustees of the general theological seminary of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States, have, and each of us hath, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents do, and each of us doth, fully and unconditionally ratify and confirm, the instruments of renunciation and release hereinbefore recited and referred to. 

"In witness whereof, we the trustees of the Geneva academy, and we the rector, churchwardens, and vestrymen of Trinity church at Geneva, have caused our respective seals to be affixed to these presents; and we the said Orin CLARK, Daniel McDONALD, Samuel COLT, and William S. DE ZENG have to these presents affixed our hands and seals this twenty-fourth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six. 

"By order of the trustees of the Geneva academy.

[Signed] "James REES, Chairman and Acting Clerk, [L.S.]

"By order of the rector, church-wardens, and vestrymen of Trinity church, Geneva.


[Signed]  "David HUDSON, Clerk of Vestry, [L.S.]

[Signed]  "Orin CLARK, [L.S.]

[Signed]  "Daniel McDONALD, [L.S.]

[Signed]  "Samuel COLT, [L.S.]

[Signed]  "W.S. DE ZENG, [L.S.]


Sealed and delivered in presence of

[Signed] "D.S. HALL.

[Signed] "C. SHEKELL."

Prior to the execution of this release, the first of a series of compromise measures by which the college has surrendered from time to time prospective advantages or actual rights for the purpose of meeting a pressing present want,---the charter had been secured, though by no means without difficulty.  We transcribe from the original manuscript in the college archives the statement of these funds, as it was presented to the regents of the university. 

The funds of the college now consist:

1.  Of the old academy fund of $1800, of which the sum of $1500 is secured by bonds and mortgages yielding an annual interest of 7 per cent; and $300 is secured by contracts given on the sales of the old academy lot, also yielding an annual interest of 7 per cent.....................................................................................................................................$1,800.00

2.  The donation made by the society in New York for the promotion of religion and learning, which now yields a semi-annual interest of 6 per cent....................................................................................................................................20,500.00

3.  A donation from Bishop HOBART out of the Startin legacy, so called, which is secured by bonds and mortgages bearing a semi-annual interest of 7 per cent ....5,000.00

4.  Amount collected from various subscriptions and donations, and secured by bonds and mortgages, about $25,000 of which is subject to a semi-annual interest of 7 per cent, and the remainder annual interest at 7 per cent.......................33,800.00                                                                                                                                                                                                                                $61,000.00



1.  Academy fund of $1800, at 7 per cent, producing...........................................................................$126.00

2.  New York donation of $20,500, at 6 per cent.................................................................................1,230.00

3.  Startin legacy $5000, at 7 per cent.................................................................................................350.00

4.  Amount collected from various sources, and producing 7 per cent, $33,800.....................................2,366.00

Amount of annual income...............................................................................................................$4,072.00

In addition to the funds which have been invested and secured, subject to interest as above, there is a considerable amount of notes and subscriptions, including several subscriptions for land.  It has heretofore been estimated by the committee under whose agency and direction the college funds were obtained, that about ten thousand dollars would be realized from this source.  But it is impossible to estimate at this time with any precision the value of these subscriptions, as many of them are bad. (College MS. files.) 

Thus the charter was obtained, and the work, whose small beginning we have so minutely traced, brought to that point whence a rapid progress was comparatively sure.

 On the 24th of May, 1825, the organization of the college under its charter was effected, a meeting for that purpose having been called at the academy building.  On motion of the Hon. John C. SPENCER, LL. D., (Subsequently Secretary of the Navy, a life-long friend of the church and of the college of which he was a trustee, 1825-1840.)  the proper officers were appointed, James REES, Esq., the senior trustee, being elected chairman, and the Hon. Bowen WHITING, the secretary of the board of trustees.  Thus the new college was fairly launched before the world. 

One feature in its proposed educational work demands our especial notice.  In a circular issued in anticipation of the full organization of the college classes under date of March 1, 1824, the following outlines of an "English course" are sketched, at a time, we believe, when this feature of collegiate education was elsewhere untried, if not unthought of: 

"That the blessings of civil liberty---real blessings only when shared equally among all ranks of people---may be extended as far as possible, and continued as long as possible, a general diffusion of useful knowledge seems indispensably necessary.  This is so universally acknowledged by all enlightened politicians, and is so universally received in these United States, both theoretically and practically, that it needs no enforcement from any single institution of learning.  But there is another light in which the diffusion of knowledge may be viewed as of the highest importance to the community at large.  It is where practical information is communicated to citizens in all stations of life, enabling them to add pleasure to business, and extend their exertions for the means of domestic comfort into fields of research hitherto confined to the philosopher. 

"The present extensive application of the discoveries in chemistry to improvements in agriculture and the various manufactures, convenient or necessary to human life, demonstrate in the fullest manner the utility of diffusing a practical knowledge of the arts and sciences among all ranks of citizens, rather than confine that knowledge to the closet of the philosopher. 

"For these reasons it is proposed, should the plan receive the approbation of the honorable the regents of the university, to institute in the Geneva College, besides the regular course of study pursued in similar institutions, a totally distinct course, in direct reference to the practical business of life, by which the agriculturist, the merchant, and the mechanic may receive a practical knowledge of what genius and experience have discovered, without passing through a tedious course of classical studies. 

"Students of certain qualifications and age shall be admitted members of the college, with all the privileges of it, to pursue a full course of the following studies under the appointed instructors:  

"1.  Under the English professor they shall study the Philosophy of English Grammar, Geography, Rhetoric, History, English Composition, Moral Philosophy, Logic, Metaphysics, Evidences of Christianity, and shall practice public speaking.

"2.  Under the professor of mathematics they shall study Geometry, Trigonometry, Land Surveying, theoretical and practical; Mensuration, generally; Navigation Leveling, with reference to canals and aqueducts; Hydraulics, as applied to machinery driven by water power; Steam Power, Natural Philosophy, and Astronomy, with the use of Mathematical Instruments, the principles of Architectural proportions and Bridge Building, Drawing of Plans, etc.

"3.  Under the professor of chemistry shall be studied Chemistry; the principles of Dyeing, Bleaching, etc.; the nature and use of different Earths and Soils; the fertilizing qualities and effects of different substances; Mineralogy and Botany.

"4.  This course of study shall consume at least two years, and the students shall be classed by years, as in the classical departments of the college.

"5.  Students pursuing this course shall be subject to the same number of public examinations in every year as are the classical students, and shall equally conform to all the by-laws of the college.

"6.  Upon the expiration of the prescribed term of study, such students in this minor course as shall appear, upon public examination, to merit it, shall receive from the president on commencement day, if the president be so authorized by the honorable the regents of the university, an English diploma, signed by the president and professors of the college, and which shall be considered an honorary testimony of application to practical studies, as the other diploma of the college is of classical and theoretical studies."   

Thus broadly did the founders of Geneva College lay the foundations of their educational course, perceiving at the outset the wisdom of furnishing that parallel course of scientific instruction which, up to the date of this circular, (The same ideas are brought out more fully, but evidently from the same pen, in one of the earliest printed pamphlets relating to Hobart College, viz.:  "Observations upon the Project of Establishing Geneva College."  8vo, New York, 1824, p. 8.)--in the wording and theories of which we cannot fail to recognize the style and mental grasp of the accomplished McDonald,---no other institution of collegiate learning had introduced. 

The following year the Rev. Jasper ADAMS, D.D., at that time president of the college in Charleston, South Carolina, was chosen to the presidency of Geneva College.  Prior to this choice, efforts had been made in vain to secure the services of the present Bishop of New York, the Right Rev. Horatio POTTER, D.D.; LL.D., D.C.L. Oxon., at that time a professor in Washington (now Trinity) College, Hartford, Connecticut.  Dr. POTTER visited Geneva, and it was only on personal and family grounds that he quite reluctantly declined the invitation.  The venerable Rev. Dr. John REED, of Poughkeepsie, New York, was also elected to this post, which, after deliberation, he refused, on the ground of a lack of special adaptation to collegiate work. 

Prior to the entrance of Dr. ADAMS upon his work, the first class had been graduated at the commencement, 1826, consisting of the following gentlemen, all of whom became clergymen, and of whom one only, the Rev. Orsamus H. SMITH, residing at Patterson, New Jersey, is at present (1876), after the lapse of a half-century, living and engaged in his life-work of the sacred ministry: 

     Henry GREGORY, B.A., subsequently M.A. and S.T.D., and a tutor and trustee of the college.

     Ulysses M. WHEELER, B.A. and M.A.

     William W. BOSTWICK, B.A. and M.A.

     Burton H. HICKOX, B.A.

     Richard SALMON, B.A. and M.A.

     Orsamus H. SMITH, B.A.

The Rev. Dr. ADAMS delivered his inaugural in Trinity church, Geneva, at the commencement, August, 1826.  A copy of this discourse was published, (An Inaugural Discourse, delivered in Trinity Church, Geneva, NY, August 1, 1827, by Rev. J. ADAMS, President of Geneva College.  Geneva:  Printed by James BOGERT, September, 1827.  8 vo, pp. 56.)  and gives abundant proof of the wide reading and thorough scholarship of the accomplished author.  At this time, as appears from the "Catalogue of the Trustees, Faculty, and Students of Geneva College, December 28, 1826," (Printed by James BOGERT, 1827.  8 vo, pp. 8.) the first of a long series of catalogues which have been issued, with an occasional exception, annually, from 1837 to the present time, the faculty consisted of the President, Rev. Dr. ADAMS; the Rev. Daniel McDONALD, S.T.D., Professor of Languages; Mr. Horace WEBSTER, A.M., subsequently LL.D., and President of the College of the City of New York, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; Mr. Joseph N. FARIBAULT, Professor of the French Language, and Mr. Henry GREGORY, A.B., Tutor.  The latter gentleman had succeeded the Rev. John S. STONE, A.B., subsequently D.D., and lately the head of the theological school of the Protestant Episcopal church at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the father of a president of Hobart in later years.  In the senior class there were five, of which two were students of the English course.  In the junior class there were two, both English students.  The sophomore class numbered fourteen, eight being English students; and the freshmen class, wholly classical, numbered eight.

 In April, 1828, Dr. ADAMS, who had amply proved his ability as the head of the college, and had won golden opinions from the students, accepted an invitation to resume his position at the south, being influenced, to some extent, in this decision by the fact that his health was not sufficient to endure the rigors of our northern climate.  The presidency was then offered to the Rev. John Churchill RUDD, D.D., of Auburn, a name inseparably connected with the history of the church in western New York; but Dr. RUDD declined the post.  Efforts made to secure the place for the Rev. Dr. McDONALD, to whom the college owed more, doubtless, than to any other man, failed, if we may believe the MS. letter of the time, (Preserved among the Hobart MSS.) in consequence of his uncompromising churchmanship; and finally the choice fell upon the Rev. Richard S. MASON, D.D., an eminent scholar and a most conscientious and devoted clergyman.  His term of office covered five eventful years, during a portion of which he fulfilled the duties of rector of Trinity church, Geneva, the mother-church with which the college had from the first sustained the closest relations.  Almost coincident upon the inauguration of Dr. MASON was the death of the gifted and energetic McDONALD, a loss well-nigh irreparable.  In the same year, all too soon for the interests of the college he had founded and nursed with infinite care and pains, the venerable Bishop of New York entered into rest, and Geneva College, in the loss of the wise counsels and constant support of Hobart, seemed indeed cast down and well-nigh destroyed.  Toward the close of Dr. MASON's term of office a medical school was established in connection with the college, which subsequently attained an honorable position among the medical institutions of the land, and was finally transferred to the Syracuse University, a few years since, only in view of the attraction of students to the great centres, where they could naturally secure greater opportunities for improving in their specialty.  In 1835, the needs of the college had become so pressing that the trustees sought relief in their extremity at the hands of the Society for the Promotion of Religion and Learning.  At a meeting of the trustees of this society, in July, 1836, further aid was granted to the college, accompanied by the declaration, "That the intent of the grant about to be made at Geneva College is to advance and secure the fundamental object for which this society was established and endowed, viz:  the promotion of religion and learning in the State of New York, in connection with the interests of the Protestant Episcopal church; and that the trustees of this society rely on the honor and good faith of the trustees of Geneva College and their successors, that in all future time this intent will be scrupulously observed."

Further stipulations were annexed to this grant.  It was required that the president should always be a communicant of the church, as he had always been, in fact, not only a communicant but also a clergyman of the church. There seems in this provision an evident purpose to prepare the way for a possible necessity of intrusting the headship of the college to lay hands, as had been so successfully tried at Columbia College.  Other requirements with reference to free scholarships were added; and on these terms the society became again the benefactor of the sorely-straitened college.  At the same time, on the entrance upon the presidency of the Rev. Benjamin HALE, D.D., in 1836, on the resignation of the amiable Mason, a new epoch in the history of Geneva College was begun. 

For twenty-three years this venerated man---whose name will ever live, in view of the patient toil, the abundant sacrifices, and the ceaseless devotion, rendered so freely, and at the cost of health and strength---gave himself to the arduous duties of his charge.  Order was established; harmony secured; the narrow means nursed and augmented, often by personal gifts and the results of most generous self-denial on the part of him who, in giving himself to the college, gave all that he was and all he had.  A life more noble than that of Benjamin HALE cannot be conceived.  Not for himself, but for others, he labored; and when spent with the untiring exertions of laborious years, and rejoicing at last in beholding the fruits of his labors, he retired from the post he had filled with singular devotion and success, throughout the length and breadth of the land, in the sacred ministry and in every walk of life, there were intellectual sons of his who could and did rise up to call him---their beloved instructor---blessed. 

As a most valued and honored coadjutor to the devoted Hale, there was added to the staff of professors, at his incoming, David PRENTICE, LL.D., succeeding the Rev. Dr. McDONALD in the chair of languages, and for eleven years, and till failing health required a relaxation of labor, maintaining a most brilliant reputation for high scholarship, singular devotion to his work, and unusual success in imparting the stores of a most richly-furnished and cultivated mind.  For an even longer period, from 1831 to 1845, the college enjoyed the efficient and valued services of General Joseph G. SWIFT, LL.D., as Professor of Statistics and Civil Engineering.  General SWIFT, who will be remembered in military annals as the post-graduate of the West Point Military Academy, in giving his labor to the college, could not fail to inspire the students with admiration of a character at once so noble and so attractive as his own, while the zeal with which he engaged in the work of his department made him a beloved and worthy fellow-worker of Hale and his other compeers.

Our brief allusions to the staff of professors during these early days of Geneva College would be sadly incomplete without full recognition of the able and long-continued services of the late president, Horace WEBSTER, LL.D., whose term of office equaled in years, though it was not coterminous in point of time, the incumbency of Dr. HALE.  In the darkest days at Geneva College the zeal and interest of Dr. WEBSTER knew no possibility of failure; and it was a touching tribute to the love he bore to the college he had so faithfully and acceptably served, and the village where he had spent so many useful, laborious, and happy years, that after attaining the highest honors in his walk in life in the metropolis of the State, he returned to Geneva to close within the sound of the college and church bells his mortal career.  To these noted names should be added that of David Bates DOUGLAS, LL.D., ex-president of Kenyon College, and for a year professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Geneva College.  Rarely have higher hopes been excited than by his coming to Geneva.  Rarely has there been a greater disappointment than at his sudden decease.  The name of Theodore IRVING, LL.D., for ten years (1837-47) professor of Modern Languages, History, and Belles Lettres, will recall his charming contributions to the romantic history of his country in his "Conquest of Florida," while the devotional reader will not readily forget "The Fountain of Living Waters," in which, with transparent style and deep fervor of piety, he has given to our religious literature a work that should not be forgotten.  The name of Dr. Edward CUTBUSH, as professor of Chemistry, Agriculture, and the Mechanic Arts, and that of a distinguished foreigner, General Henry L. DuCoudray HOLSTEIN, as professor of Modern Languages, should be added to the galaxy of gifted men whose names have honored, as their services have adorned, the institution to which they gave much of their valued lives.

 In 1836 the middle college building was erected for the use of the medical department.  In 1837 the new college building was erected, now known as Trinity Hall.  In 1838 the State granted the college an annuity of $6000 per annum, which was continued until 1846, when the grant was held to be inoperative by the amendment to the constitution made in that year.  In 1841 the medical college building, to the erection of which the State had granted the sum of $15,000, was added to the number of college edifices, and the middle college building was appropriated to the use of the academic department.  In 1848 the small building then used for lectures, and now known as the Philosophical Room, was fitted up as a chapel.  In 1849, the sum of $15,000 having been raised for that purpose, chiefly in the diocese of Western New York, the "Hobart Professorship" was established and assigned to the department of the Classical Languages; and on the completion of their foundation, the society for the "Promotion of Religion and Learning" gave the college, in 1851, the interest of a similar sum for the endowment of a professorship. (Historical notices prefixed to the "Triennial" catalogue of 1856.) 

On the 12th of May, 1848, the following minute and resolutions were adopted by the corporation of Trinity church:

"The vestry then considered the resolution heretofore submitted by the committee, to whom was referred the application of Geneva College, together with their report and the accompanying statement of the Bishop of Western New York; and the same having been discussed it was, therefore, 

"Resolved, That, for the purpose of promoting religious education in connection with the church in this State, it is expedient to endow the college at Geneva, in the diocese of Western New York, with an annuity of $6000, to commence on the 1st of May, 1866; such sum to be thereafter annually expended in the support of professors and tutors, and upon terms, conditions, and provisos, and with checks to be hereafter settled, so as to insure its application to the uses intended, provided the college shall raise, by subscription or other grants, a sufficient sum to insure the continuance of the institution in its late efficiency, until the endowment of this church shall be available. 

"And it was referred to the same committee to consider and report the proper terms, conditions, provisos, and checks aforesaid." 

The cessation of the State grant, however, created an immediate and pressing need, and application was made to Trinity church, New York, for relief.  How that venerable corporation responded may be best inferred by the following extract from its minutes:   

"November 14, 1851.

"Resolved, That the promised endowment to Geneva College made by this vestry on the 12th of May, 1848, of $6000 per annum, to commence on the 1st of May, 1866, be so modified as to allow instead thereof $3000 per annum in perpetuity, payable quarterly, to commence from the first day of the present college term, provided that the trustees of Geneva College assent to such modification."

This grant was qualified by certain conditions, which were accepted and fulfilled:  and among them was one, that the college should assume the name of the revered HOBART, a fitting tribute to distinguished zeal and service in the work and welfare of the college; and another, to the effect that any necessitous young man should receive his education and lodging in the college without any charge, thus making this institution of the church free to all.

This arrangement, concluded under the beloved and wise Bishop De LANCEY, was the salvation of the college.  Trinity church and Bishop HOBART must be gratefully regarded as its founders; and the college has had abundant proof that the parent has never forgotten, and will not forget, her offspring.  But the endowment of $100,000, which would otherwise have been received in 1866, is by the terms of this compromise now only $50,000, at 6 per cent, and the values of money are so changed that, practically, even this sum is greatly diminished.  It may be hoped, if not confidently anticipated, that "Trinity" will from its abundance eventually make good its original purpose.

The retirement of Dr. HALE, full of years and honors, was succeeded, in 1858, by the inauguration of the Rev. Abner JACKSON, D.D., LL.D., at that time Professor in Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut.

During these nine years of abundant and successful work, there were associated with President JACKSON men of like spirit, and hardly less renown as scholars, as those who shared the work and honors of the excellent Dr. HALE.  Foremost among these---alas !  that he has passed away from earth---should be mentioned the late Kendric METCALF, S.T.D., who, for nearly a quarter of a century, as professor in more than one department, as senior professor, and from time to time acting president, and finally, when worn out in the work, as deservedly emeritus professor, gave to the college a life's devotion and all the varied powers of a singularly gifted mind.  Nor should the name of Edward BOURNS, LL.D., subsequently President of Norwich University, in Vermont, who was long a successful professor of languages here, be forgotten.  The Rev. William Dexter WILSON, D.D., LL.D., LH.D., now of Cornell University, and Professor John TOWLER, M.A., M.D., the honored and beloved senior professor of the present faculty, are still happily living.  Their worth and praise every graduate or friend of "HOBART" will attest.

In 1860-61, the efforts of President Jackson to increase the endowment of the college added about sixty-seven thousand dollars to the general funds of the institution.  The beautiful chapel, built after designs by the Messrs. UPJOHN and Son, at the sole charge of Mr. William B. DOUGLAS, of Geneva, was consecrated on the 29th of October, 1863, by the Right Rev. Bishop De LANCEY, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L. OXON, the life-long friend and supporter of the college.  The sermon on this interesting occasion was preached by the Rev. Morgan DIX, S.T.D., rector of Trinity church, New York.  The Rev. Henry A. NEELY, D.D., now Bishop of Maine, was the first incumbent of the chaplaincy.  He was succeeded by the Rev. Pelham WILLIAMS, D.D., now rector of the Church of the Messiah, Boston, Massachusetts, and, after a lengthened interval, he in turn was succeeded by the present incumbent, the Rev. Walter AYRAULT, D.D., an alumnus of the college over whose religious interest he is called to preside.

On the retirement of Dr. JACKSON from the presidency of HOBART, the Rev. James Kent STONE, D.D., son of the first tutor of the college, the Rev. John S. STONE, D.D., was called to the position, which he filled but a single year, but little of which, in consequence of family affliction, he was able to spend in actual collegiate work.  The vacancy created by Dr. STONE's retirement was filled by the appointment of the Rev. James RANKINE, D.D., rector of St. Peter's memorial church, Geneva, and head of the De LANCEY training school.  Dr. RANKINE's incumbency extended over two years, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Maunsell VAN RENSSELAER, D.D., late President of Deveaux College, Suspension Bridge, New York, whose term of office was terminated early in the present (1876) year.  During the presidency of Drs. RANKINE and VAN RENNSELAER, mainly through the exertions of the bishop of the diocese, the Right Rev. Dr. COXE, assisted by the presidents and the local Geneva clergy and trustees, the sum of sixty-five thousand dollars was added to the funds of the college, while various improvements, such as the purchase of valuable philosophical apparatus; the erection of an observatory, and the purchase of a fine telescope, with other subsidiary appliances for the practical study of astronomy; the fitting-up of a college reading-room; the increase and arrangement of the college library of thirteen thousand volumes, etc., etc., prove that the college is not standing still. 

On the 11th of May the Rev. William Stevens PERRY, D.D., LL.D., who had been elected on the 20th of the preceding month, entered upon the presidency of the college.  On the 31st of May the newly-chosen president was unanimously elected to the episcopate of the diocese of Iowa.  The circumstances of the diocese and of the election being such that there could be no doubt as to the question of duty in the case, Dr. PERRY tendered his resignation to the trustees of the college on the 21st of June, which was accepted by the board, after the adoption of complimentary resolutions, to take effect on his consecration to the episcopate.  A committee was empowered to nominate a new president, who will enter upon his duties on the removal of Dr. PERRY to his future home. 

At present the following gentlemen form the faculty and lecturers of Hobart College for 1876: 

The Rev. William Stevens PERRY (Harvard College), D.D. (Trinity), LL.D. (William and Mary), President, Trinity Professor of Christian Ethics, Startin Professor of the Evidences of Christianity, and Acting Professor of Intellectual Philosophy; John TOWLER, M.A. (University of Cambridge, England), M.D. (Hobart), Professor of Civil Engineering and of Chemistry, and Acting Professor of Mathematics and Modern Languages; Hamilton L. SMITH, M.A. (Yale College), LL.D. (Trinity), Prendergast Professor of Astronomy and Natural Philosophy; Joseph H. McDANIELS, M.A. (Harvard College), Professor of the Greek Language and Literature; the Rev. George F. SIEGMUND (graduate of the Universities of Halle and Berlin, Germany), M.A. (Hobart), Hobart Professor of the Latin Language and Literature; Charles D. VAIL, M.A. (Hobart College), Adjunct Horace WHITE Professor of Rhetoric and Elocution, and of the English Language and Literature; the Right Rev. Arthur Cleveland COXE (University of New York), D.D. (Trinity), LL.D. (Kenyon), Lecturer on English Literature and History; the Hon. Samuel A. FOOT, M.A. (Union College), LL.D. (Hobart), Lecturer on Constitutional Law; the Rev. Walter AYRAULT, M.A. (Hobart College), D.D. (Hobart), Chaplain and Pastor on the Swift Foundation; Charles D. VAIL, M.A. (Hobart), Librarian.

Hobart College is the college of the five dioceses of the State of New York.  The five bishops of these dioceses are all visitors.  Three of them have consented to serve as trustees; and the rector of Trinity church, in New York, is also a visitor and a trustee.


The church possesses in this college:

     (a) Endowments, inclusive of value of buildings ($53,000), amounting to $266,000.  Total of college property, $333,000.

     (b) Income from all sources, $13,700.

     (c) A corps of eminent scientific and classical professors, whose names and college honors we have given above, all laboring to give the highest tone and character to the scholarship of the            college, the standard of which is not surpassed by any college in the State, and elsewhere only by the two great universities of the land.

     (d) An incomparable site on the banks of the beautiful Seneca lake, in a healthy and beautiful village, where the social and religious influences are of the happiest kind.

     (e) A historic character, shown in this sketch, which is always valuable to an American college, and is a guaranty of perpetuity.

     (f ) A community of relations and claims that never can be shared by any future institution, growing out of the common history of the five dioceses of the State of New York.

CHAPTER XXIX    pg 76 - 82



In a history of the educational institutions of Ontario County, the Ontario Female Seminary should have a prominent place.  This is due to its successful career for so long a period, and to its position, in its early years, as a pioneer in the modern movement in behalf of a higher education for females.

 Its beginnings was as follows:  December 8, 1824, James D. BEMIS, Nathaniel JACOBS, Walter HUBBELL, Jared WILLSON, and Mark H. SIBLEY, gave public notice that they would make application to the Legislature for an act incorporating the Ontario Female Seminary, which was then being established.  Land for the seminary was deeded by Henry B. GIBSON, July 28, 1825.  March 4, 1825, notice was given for proposals to erect a building for the use of the institution, the building to be of brick, seventy-five feet front and fifty feet deep, two stories high, with a basement of four feet above the ground.  This was the main central building, and furnished adequate accommodations for a very few years, until a south wing of thirty by fifty feet was erected, for the purpose of supplying a school-room and recitation-rooms, while the main building should be devoted wholly to the accommodation of the boarding department.  During the first five years of its existence the institution had a varying history, with successive changes of principals, among whom were Mr. and Mrs. WHITTLESEY, whose name was widely associated with the Mother's Magazine.

 In October, 1830, Miss Hannah UPHAM and Miss Arabella SMITH, from New Hampshire, were made principals of the institution, and from this time it began to take on a steady growth and permanent prosperity.  In the year 1835 they assumed, by request of the trustees, full charge of the boarding department, and the almost entire control and responsibility of the institution.  Under their wise management the number of pupils increased, the reputation of the institution extended, pupils from a distance multiplied, and larger accommodations for the boarding department became requisite, until the north wing of thirty by fifty feet, two stories high, was erected to supply the needed rooms for dormitories.  Miss UPHAM and Miss SMITH continued as associate principals until the summer of 1842, when Miss SMITH died, and Miss UPHAM continued sole principal, except as assisted by her nieces, until July, 1848, when she retired from the institution, after a connection with it of eighteen years of successful management.  After resigning her charge, she spent a few years with relatives in New England, after which she returned to Canandaigua, and in the midst of endeared friends and associations passed the remaining years of her life.  She died August 20, 1868, in the eightieth year of her age.  In conformity with her request, her remains were taken to the family cemetery, at Portsmouth, NH.  In commemoration of her character and life-work, her pupils erected in her name a rich memorial window in the new Congregational chapel at Canandaigua. 

In the words of a well-drawn biographical sketch, taken from the minutes of the University Convocation of the State of New York, August, 1869,--- 

 "Miss UPHAM was a woman of rare gifts.  With great strength of mind, the most thorough culture, and the acuteness of a logician, there was combined a most delicate refinement and the sweet simplicity of a child.  As a teacher she wonderfully impressed herself upon her pupils, or, rather, she reproduced herself in them.  She moulded their characters and planted in their hearts seeds of spiritual life, which have blossomed and borne fruit in countless Christian homes; and even when the infirmities of age gathered upon her, she wore upon her brow that coronet of tranquil joys accorded only to those whose life and being have been consecrated to the Lord.  Her ruling principle was love.  Every pupil was to her as a child of her affections, and to fit her for Christian usefulness was her most earnest endeavor.  Her school was a delighted family---many, very many of whose members have already with her entered into that divine joy to which she led them." 

In July, 1848, Miss UPHAM was succeeded by Mr. and Mrs. Edward G. TYLER, who had previously been connected as associate principals with the Young Ladies' Institute of Pittsfield, Massachusetts.  The institution continued to prosper until the accommodations both for day and boarding pupils became too limited, and in the summer of 1852 its capacity was enlarged by the addition to the south wing of a two-story building, with dimensions of forty by sixty feet, furnishing an elegant school-room and chapel, and additional lodging-rooms.  The institution thus had come to have a capacity for accommodating a large day school and a boarding school for eighty pupils, and twelve or fifteen teachers, together with a full complement of domestics. 

In July, 1854, Mr. and Mrs. TYLER were succeeded in the principalship by Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin RICHARDS, then recently from the Female Collegiate Institute at Barhamville, SC. 

From 1860 to 1867, Mr. TYLER and Mr. RICHARDS were associated in the management of the institution. 

From 1867 to 1875, Mr. and Mrs. RICHARDS had entire charge of the seminary.  Thus the institution filled up and completed the half-century of its existence. 

During the later years it encountered difficulties arising from the weakness of its financial condition, it having never been endowed, and having started on a subscription of about sixteen thousand dollars only, thus leaving the expense of buildings and improvements to be provided for, chiefly by incurring a permanent indebtedness.  Also there has come upon our country recently the era of large and richly-endowed female schools and colleges, thus drawing away patronage from the older seminaries of more limited accommodations and humbler pretensions. 

Whether, from these causes, the Ontario Female Seminary has closed its work, or, on the other hand, has a mission still to accomplish, its past at least is secure.

Its half-century record is made up, and its history is replete with precious and enduring memorials.  Like the Troy Female Seminary, founded about the same time, it was a pioneer, leading the way in the new era of an advanced education for women.  It was "the mother" of female schools and colleges over the land, and thus still lives.  It has sent out hundreds of well-educated teachers, many of whom have risen to high positions in first-class seminaries and colleges for women.  It has furnished many successful writers and authors.  It has educated probably not less than five thousand pupils, many of whom have gone to enrich and adorn happy Christian homes in distant States, while for its own town and county and region it has done a work of inestimable value,---a work not only literary and intellectual, but also social and religious, for it ought to be recorded that the institution was earnestly Christian, but not sectarian, the different denominations being represented in its board of trustees, its corps of teachers, and its list of pupils. 


THE UNION SCHOOL OF GENEVA, now incorporated as the Geneva Classical and Union School, is one of the first institutions of the kind established in the State.  The plan was first proposed by Mr. Francis DWIGHT, so well known for his deep interest in the cause of education in our State, and was submitted to Messrs. C.A. COOK, Perez HASTINGS, and Aaron YOUNG. 

     After long consultation the plan was proposed to the public, and a meeting of the citizens was called.  There was for a time strong opposition to the enterprise on the part of tax-payers; but the object was at last obtained, a large majority of the citizens voting for it, and in time those most opposed to the plan became its warmest supporters.  For a long time this institution was taken as a model for others, and delegations frequently came from other towns in the State to witness the operation of the school, in order to form others on the same plan. 

     On the 24th day of April, 1839, Philo BRONSON, Charles S. BROTHER, and S.D. TILLMAN, commissioners of common schools for the town of Seneca (now Geneva and Seneca), pursuant to previous notice to each of said commissioners, met at the office of S.D. TILLMAN, in the village of Geneva, and unanimously resolved that the old school districts, Nos. 1 and 19, comprising the corporate bounds of the village of Geneva, are hereby annulled, and that a new district, to be called No. 1, be formed from the same, together with a certain tract or territory lying north of the corporate bounds of Geneva. 

     On the 26th day of April, 1839, Aaron YOUNG, William W. GREENE, and S. GREENE, trustees of old district No. 1, and Clark MORRISON and William BARKER, trustees of the old district No. 19, consented in writing to the annulment of the old districts and the formation of the new. 

     On the 11th day of May following, by order of the commissioners, a meeting of the taxable inhabitants of the new district was held at the Mansion House, on Seneca street, in the village of Geneva, for the purpose of electing district officers and transacting such other business as might be deemed necessary in the organization of the district.  At this meeting Bowen WHITING was chosen moderator, and Francis DWIGHT clerk pro tempore.  The meeting elected as trustees of district No. 1, Bowen WHITING, Richard HOGARTH, and Francis DWIGHT.  James GILLESPIE was chosen clerk, and Jacob MARSHALL collector.  An effort was made to raise by tax two thousand dollars to build a new school-house, but was unsuccessful, and the meeting adjourned sine die

     A special meeting was called on the thirtieth of the same month, at the Presbyterian lecture-room, in the village of Geneva, and a sum not exceeding three thousand six hundred dollars was voted for purchasing a site and erecting thereon a suitable building. 

     The site was purchased on Milton street, and a very commodious building erected on it in 1839, having four rooms, accommodating about three hundred pupils, and employing five teachers. 

On the 9th day of May, 1840, at the annual meeting held at the new school-house, and presided over by Benjamin HALE, D.D., Messrs. WHITING, HOGARTH, and DWIGHT were unanimously re-elected trustees. 

Mr. Isaac SWIFT was the first principal of this institution, and held his position, with honor to himself and profit to the district, for thirteen years.  In 1841 the sum of six hundred dollars was voted for the purpose of procuring a bell for the new school-house.  In 1842 the building was found insufficient, and a wing on the east of the main building was erected. 

In 1852, Mr. J. E. DEXTER succeeded Mr. SWIFT, and in the spring of 1853 Mr. William H. VROOMAN became connected with the school as assistant teacher, having charge of the boys of the senior department. 

During the summer of 1853 a west wing was erected to the main building, and all the rooms rearranged and newly furnished; also three branch school-houses, known as the North and South branches, and colored school.  The main building then accommodated two grades of scholars,---seniors and juniors.  

Scholars were transferred from the branch schools to the junior department, and from the junior to the senior, on passing a certain prescribed examination.  By an act passed April 15, 1853, incorporating Geneva Union school, and authorizing a classical department, it became subject to the regents of the University of the State of New York, and entitled to a distributive share of the literature fund.  This academic department has enjoyed, and still enjoys, an excellent reputation. 

During the year 1853, and incorporated in the same act above referred to, the board of education was increased from three to five members,---one to be elected annually, and to hold his office for five years.  In 1854 another branch building was erected on Lewis street, called the middle branch. In 1855, Mr. E .M. HUTCHINS was selected as principal, and in 1857 Mr. B. I. BRISTOL. 

In 1859, Mr. William H. VROOMAN was elected principal and superintendent, and still has charge of the schools.  When Mr. VROOMAN took charge of the schools, the board of education was composed of the following gentlemen, viz:  George B. DUSENBERRE, Perez H. FIELD, Phineas  PROUTY, James M.  SOVERHILL, and Corydon WHEAT.  Messrs. DUSENBERRE and SOVERHILL were elected members of the board in 1856, Mr. C. WHEAT in 1857, Mr. Phineas PROUTY in 1858, and Mr. Perez H. FIELD in 1859.  In this place permit us to say that no school ever had a more acceptable, efficient, and excellent board, and that no board of trustees was ever more devoted to the interests of a school.

The fact that a larger number has been in attendance each succeeding year is pleasing evidence of the growing popularity of the school and the competency of the board of trustees to direct in its successful management.  The Union school building, on Milton street, known as the main or academic building, was destroyed by fire on the 17th day of December, 1868, and with it the large and valuable library, astronomical, chemical, electrical, and philosophical apparatus, pictures, piano, furniture, books of teachers and pupils,---all lost.  Apartments were immediately secured and furnished, and the school reopened on the 4th of January, 1869.  Union or Dunn's Hall was occupied by the senior department, and rooms at the foot of Castle street, owned by Mr. James M. SOVERHILL, by the junior department.  On the 16th of March, 1869, an act was passed legalizing all former acts of the board of trustees, and, among other things, making "Geneva Classical and Union School" the corporate name of the institution.  At an annual meeting, held in Union Hall, December 26, 1868, it was resolved that the trustees be authorized to procure estimates and plans for rebuilding the school-house, and submit the same on the 30th of January, 1869, to which time the meeting adjourned.  The trustees not being prepared to report, the meeting again adjourned.  Messrs. Angus McDONALD and S.D. ROBISON were associated with the board of trustees, and authorized to examine new sites on which to erect a house.  After several adjourned meetings, it was finally resolved, on March 20, 1869, after hearing the report of the trustees, etc., "that we proceed to build a new school-house, and to build it on the old site, and large enough to accommodate at least six hundred pupils, and that it be furnished with single desks, and of the most approved styles.  Mr. A. J. WARNER was the architect who drew the plan of the building, and it was built, furnished, and heated with steam at a cost of about thirty-eight thousand dollars.  On the 20th day of October, 1870, the building was ready to be occupied by the school, and was formally delivered into the hands of the pupils by the president of the board, Mr. Corydon WHEAT.  The school was immediately graded and put in good working order. 

In 1871, Mr. James M. SOVERHILL having declined a re-election as trustee, Colonel Frederick A. PRINCE offered the following resolution, viz: 

"Resolved, That the thanks of the tax-payers of this school district be tendered to James M. SOVERHILL for his long and faithful services and unswerving devotion to the interests of its schools, extending over a period of fifteen years, as one of its trustees." 

The resolution passed unanimously.  Mr. Joseph S. LEWIS was then elected trustees for five years.  This is the first and only change in the board of trustees since 1859.  On the 2d day of September, 1872, the board of education met at the office of Hon. George B. DUSENBERRE, tidings having been received that the steamer "Metis" was lost, and that one of their number, Hon. P. H. FIELD, was drowned, and adopted the following, viz: 

"Resolved, That the thanks of the tax-payers of this school district be tendered to James M. SOVERHILL for his long and faithful services and unswerving devotion to the interests schools, extending over a period of fifteen years, as one of its trustees."  

The resolution passed unanimously.  Mr. Joseph S. LEWIS was then elected trustee for five years.  This is the first and only change in the board of trustees since 1859.  On the 2d day of September, 1872, the board of education met at the office of Hon. George B. DUSENBERRE, tidings having been received that the steamer "Metis" was lost, and that one of their number, Hon. P. H. FIELD, was drowned, and adopted the following, viz: 

"Resolved, That we attend his funeral in a body; that all the public schools in the village be closed at the time appointed for his funeral; that a copy of the memorial be furnished the family of the deceased, and that the same be published in the Geneva papers.







On this same day, at a meeting of the teachers of the Geneva Classical and Union School, held at the new school building, the following resolution was unanimously adopted:

"Resolved, That the teachers of Geneva Classical and Union School, in token of respect to the memory of one who has been a zealous and steadfast friend of this institution, attend, in a body, the funeral obsequies of the late Hon. Perez H. FIELD.

"Wm. H. VROOMAN, Principal." 

On the 5th day of October, 1872, Mr. John POST, supervisor of the town, appointed George W. FIELD, M.D., trustee of the school, in place of Hon. Perez H. FIELD, deceased.  Mr. FIELD acted as trustee until the day of his death, which occurred on the 20th of March, 1875.  At a special meeting of the trustees of Geneva Classical and Union School, held March 22, 1875, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted:  

"Whereas, We have learned of the death of our esteemed associate, George W. FIELD, M.D., which occurred in the city of New York on the 20th day of March, 1875; therefore be it 

"Resolved, That in his death we recognize the loss of a faithful, influential, and cultivated associate, who has endeared himself to us by his noble acts and unswerving fidelity to duty. 

"Resolved, That we, in token of respect, attend his funeral in a body; that all the public schools of the village be closed at the time appointed for the funeral; that we extend to the relatives of the deceased our deepest sympathy; that a copy of these resolutions be furnished the family of the deceased, and that the same be published in the village papers.

"Corydon WHEAT,

"Phineas PROUTY,


"Joseph S. LEWIS,


Also the following viz:  "In the sad event of the death of George W. FIELD, M.D., one of the trustees of Geneva Classical and Union School, the teachers of the institution, feeling that the school has lost a faithful and efficient officer, education a cultivated scholar, and they a genial friend, met in the school chapel, March 23, 1875, and adopted the following:  

"Resolved, That we, out of respect to the memory of the deceased, attend his funeral obsequies in a body; that we tender our sympathy to the widow and relatives; that a copy of these resolutions be furnished the family of the deceased, and that the same be printed in the village papers.

"Wm. H. VROOMAN, Principal." 

On the 20th of April, 1875, John J. DOOLITTLE, supervisor of the town, appointed Arthur P. ROSE, Esq., trustee in place of George W. FIELD, M.D., deceased.


On the 13th of June, 1876, Mr. Arthur P. ROSE tendered his resignation as trustee of the school.


This resignation having been accepted, the supervisor, on the 18th of July, 1876, appointed Mr. John W. SMITH trustee, in place of Arthur P. ROSE, resigned. 

The changes noted in this sketch are the only ones in the board of education during a period of twenty years.  The teachers connected with the school are kept as long as they are found faithful and efficient, or until they signify a desire to leave.  The board of education has ever been watchful, economical, and devoted to the interests of the school; never conceited, fickle, hasty, jealous, selfish, and tyrannical; never biased by politics or religion; always united and pulling together, taking for their motto, "In union there is strength,"  "United we stand; divided we fall."  Hence, the school has steadily grown and increased, and teachers, pupils, and patrons have been benefited and made happy. 

The Geneva Classical and Union School accommodates from nine hundred to one thousand pupils, and employs from twenty to twenty-two teachers.  The schools are all carefully classed and graded, and embrace a complete common school and academic education. 

The primary or branch schools embrace a three-years' course; then the pupils are, on examination, admitted to the intermediate department, where they spend another three years, and are, on examination, admitted to the senior common school department, which requires three years more.  The academic department has three separate divisions in its course of study, viz, classical, mixed, English, each requiring a three-years' course.  The schools are free of charge to all residing in the district, and the best of teachers are employed.  The Geneva Classical and Union School is designated also to instruct a normal class under the regents of the University.  It has fitted many young men for college, many for teachers, and sent abroad many more to occupy places of trust and honor.  As it was the first institution of the kind in its organization, so now it is one of the first in moral and intellectual improvement.



The history of Canandaigua Academy is closely connected with that of the PHELPS and GORHAM purchase, in western New York.  Judge PHELPS and Judge GORHAM, the main purchasers of this tract, were men of great enterprise and ability.  They were also men of culture and education, and hence among their first acts was the setting apart of a large tract of land for the purpose of an academy or seminary, and that of a high order. 

The deed of conveyance was made January 28, 1791, reciting that "We, Nathaniel GORHAM, of Charlestown, in the commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Oliver PHELPS, of Suffield, in the State of Connecticut, of our own pleasure and divers considerations moving thereunto, do give, etc., six thousand acres of land in the county of Ontario, and State of New York, for the purpose of establishing an academy or seminary of learning in said county, at township No. 10, in the third range, which said township lies on the north end of Canandaigua lake, and adjoining thereon, which land is made subject to the management and direction of His Excellency, George CLINTON, Governor of the State of New York, and Robert MORRIS, of the city of Philadelphia, Esqr., to us the said Nathaniel GORHAM and Oliver PHELPS, Esqrs., to the Rev. John SMITH, of Dighton, of the commonwealth aforesaid, and the first learned minister of the church and religion who shall be settled in the work of the ministry at the aforesaid township No. 10, where the proposed school of learning is to be fixed, and to his successors in the work of the ministry, etc." 

On the 12th day of February, 1795, Oliver PHELPS, Nathaniel GORHAM, Arnold POTTER, and Nathaniel GORHAM, Jr., applied to the regents of the University of this State for an act of incorporation, stating, "That they are founders and benefactors of an academy about to be erected and established at Canadaque, in the county of Ontario, for the instruction of youth in the languages and other branches of useful learning, and that they have contributed more than one-half in value of the real and personal property and estate collected or appropriated for the use and benefit of the same." 

The act of incorporation was granted, bearing date March 4, 1795, with the following trustees:  Nathaniel GORHAM, Oliver PHELPS, Israel CHAPIN, Nathaniel GORHAM, Jr., Thomas MORRIS, Arnold POTTER, John SMITH, Timothy HOSMER, Charles WILLIAMSON, James WADSWORTH, Oliver Leicester PHELPS, Daniel PENFIELD, Ambrose HULL, John CODDING, John WICKHAM, Moses ATWATER, Judah COLT, Israel CHAPIN, Jr., and Amos HALL.  The act of incorporation bears the signatures of George CLINTON, Chancellor, and De Witt CLINTON, Secretary.  In a subsequent deed, dated January 1, 1799, explanatory of the former deed of conveyance, and signed by Oliver PHELPS, it is declared that it "was the original intention and mutual agreement of Oliver PHELPS and Nathaniel GORHAM that part of the lands conveyed in the aforesaid deed should be exclusively appropriated to the purpose of promoting in the minds of the youth to be educated at said academy an ardent attachment to rational liberty and the just rights of man, and also to the purpose of assisting to raise up humble merit, depressed by poverty, to the condition of extensive usefulness to the community" ; therefore it was provided that out of the income from certain lands mentioned "there should be set apart by the said trustee and their successors yearly the sum of twenty dollars, as a premium, to be given to that youth, being a student of said academy, who shall compose, and at the yearly commencement of said academy deliver and pronounce publicly in the presence of a majority of the trustees present, the best oration on "The Transcendent Excellence of a Genuine Representative Republican Government, Effectually Securing Equal Liberty, Founded on the Rights of Man ;" and that the residue of the annual profits which shall arise from the said lands shall be exclusively applied towards educating in said academy such young men as, having bright intellects and amiable dispositions, bid fair to be useful members of the community, but, from the incompetency of their resources, are unable without assistance from the fund hereby appropriated to acquire a suitable share of literary information to enable them to do extensive good to their fellow-men."  The first recorded meeting of the trustees was held July 12, 1796, at the house of Nathaniel SANBORN, inn-holder; and the first official act was to elect two trustees---Nathaniel W. HOWELL, in the place of Israel CHAPIN, and Dudley SALTONSTALL, in the place of Nathaniel GORHAM, both deceased.  A committee was also appointed to solicit subscriptions for the benefit of the institution, and another to superintend the erection of a building and to employ an instructor.  A subscription was accordingly opened for the new academy, and the paper bears the names of forty persons, which names, as a  matter of some local interest, are here given,----

From the few records which are preserved, it appears that a building was begun in 1796, and a school was organized the same year, but under what teacher is not known. 

In the record of the meeting held November 17, 1804, it appears that a committee was appointed to employ some suitable person to teach a grammar school in the academy. 

Among the earlier records of the board of trustees are the following:  Voted, November 17, 1804, that the board next proceed to fill the vacancy occurred by the removal of Ambrose HULL out of the United States, he having removed to Florida. 

Voted, June 25, 1806, that Israel CHAPIN, Moses ATWATER, and N.W. HOWELL, be a committee to dispose of some of the most salable lands, whereof the absolute fee simple is in this corporation, to such an amount as will finish and paint the academy. 

Voted, July 30, 1810, that John GREIG, John C. SPENCER, and Luther COLE be trustees to fill certain vacancies then existing. 

Voted, that Moses ATWATER, Nathaniel W. HOWELL, John C. SPENCER, William WILLIAMS, and John GREIG be a committee to superintend the instruction in said academy, with authority to establish a system of education to be pursued therein and a code of rules and regulations for the government thereof; to determine on the qualifications of such as may be admitted as students, and from time to time to visit and inspect the school, and see that the rules and regulations adopted for the goverment and instruction thereof be enforced. 

Voted, November 19, 1810, that Mr. GORHAM be a committee to see that the school be constantly supplied with firewood for the ensuing winter. 

September 7, 1811, that the committee of repairs be authorized and requested to complete the second story of the academy building as soon as possible; and that the school committee be authorized to employ an assistant teacher in the academy. 

December 3, 1811, that Mr. HOWELL be authorized to pay the sum of twenty dollars to Reuben ORRIS, one of the students of the academy, being the premium awarded to him for composing and publicly pronouncing, at the late annual commencement of the academy, the best oration on the transcendent excellence of republican government, in pursuance of a limitation in the deed of conveyance executed to this corporation by Oliver PHELPS, deceased. 

May 23, 1812, that John GREIG, John C. SPENCER, and Myron HOLLEY, be a committee to memorialize the Legislature, stating the claims of the academy to be erected into a college. 

Voted, November 19, 1810, that, on recommendation of John C. SPENCER, Nathaniel JACOB, Jr., be employed as principal of the academy for one year at a salary of six hundred dollars, payable quarterly. 

September 15, 1813, that the school committee be directed to engage Rev. Mr. HOWES to instruct the academy at least for one year upon the terms agreed upon with Dr. JACOB; also that the school committee be authorized to purchase and distribute such prizes as they may think proper on examination and exhibition days, to be paid for out of the funds of the institution, provided such purchases do not exceed the sum of twenty dollars. 

December 6, 1813, that Rev. Mr. HOWES be informed that it is desirable that he should eat at the same table with the pupils, that he take such oversight of the wood delivered at the academy for the use of the school as may be necessary to prevent any improper use or loss of it, and that he be at liberty to keep a fire in his lodging-room provided he defray the expense thereof.  July 18, 1814, that the thanks of the board be tendered Rev. Ezra WITTER for the impressive and appropriate address just delivered by him in the school-room, etc. 

October 20, 1817, that the resignation of Mr. WITTER be accepted, to take place on the first day of May next.  At the same meeting it was voted that the building committee be authorized to procure materials and prepare for the accommodation of a principal of the academy and of a steward, and to contract for the erection of such a building. 

Voted, April 20, 1818, that the board secure the services of the Rev. James STEVENSON, of the city of New York, as principal of the academy, at a salary of eight hundred dollars a year, together with a dwelling and the use of the academy lot, and that two hundred dollars additional be given to him in token of their regard, and to assist him to remove his family to this place. 

Voted, October 3, 1818, that public notice be given that the academy will open for the reception of students of Monday, the 12th of October, instant, and that the price of board shall not exceed one dollar and seventy-five cents per week, and washing fifty cents per dozen, the students to furnish their own beds and furniture, and their proportion of fuel, and that the tuition be five dollars per quarter.  These records have been recited here mainly to give some idea of the working of the academy in its early history.   

From these records it would appear that a building (of wood) was erected in 1796, and so much of its lower story finished as to admit of its use for that year; that a school was opened; that during the next six or eight years the academy was completed and painted, and that the school was in the second story, the lower rooms being used by the preceptor and his family; that originally the two sexes were educated together; that among the first teachers were,---Dudley SALTONSTALL (probably), Rev. Eliphalet COLEMAN, Thomas BEALS, Rev. Mr. CHAPMAN, Rev. Mr. HOWES, Rev. Ezra WITTER, and Rev. James STEVENSON. 

It is probable that Dudley SALTONSTALL was the first teacher in the academy.  His name is cherished by our old people with great respect.  He seems to have been a genial man, much beloved by his pupils, and much respected by the trustees, of which board he was some time a member.  He was not unlike the village schoolmaster described by Goldsmith.

"A man severe he was and stern to view,

Yet he was kind, or if severe in aught

The love he bore to learning was in fault." 

There are no records to show the success of the school until the accession of Mr. STEVENSON in 1818, although there is abundant evidence of the struggle through which the academy had to pass previous to that time, and the school was kept in operation only by loans or by subscriptions on the part of its friends, and during the four years of Mr. STEVENSON's administration it was not self-supporting.  The sum total of receipts for tuition, board, wood, and washing, during the first year of Mr. STEVENSON's was one thousand three hundred and seventy-nine dollars and eleven cents, and expenses were one thousand three hundred and eighty-two dollars and twenty-three cents, leaving a deficit of three dollars and twelve cents; and the last year, 1822, the sum total of all receipts for tuition was six hundred and ninety-nine dollars and ten cents, and Mr. STEVENSON's eight hundred dollars, showing a deficit of one hundred dollars and ninety cents.  Ichabod SPENCER, afterwards Rev. Dr. SPENCER, of Brooklyn, succeeded Mr. STEVENSON, and was principal for two or three years.  He was succeeded by Mr. George WILLSON, afterwards the author of Willson's Arithmetic and Class Reader.  In the spring of 1828, Mr. Henry HOWE, a graduate of Middlebury College, Vermont, then recently from Pompey Hill Academy, in Onondaga county, was elected principal, and he entered at once upon his labors.  Very soon, under his efficient management, the old wooden building became too strait to meet the demands of the school; and so in 1834-35 the building was entirely remodeled and enlarged.  It was inclosed with brick, raised one story, and extended east and west by new and spacious additions, taking the form it has to-day.  It was considered at the time a building of fine proportions, and well arranged for school and family purposes; and although it has not the style and finish of many modern school buildings, yet for beauty of location, for arrangement and convenience of school-rooms, and apartments for the family of the principal, it ranks among the best academies of the State; and so to its sanitary condition, it is unsurpassed. 

Up to the time of Mr. HOWE's administration, the academy had never been self-supporting.  It had depended upon home patronage, with but few exceptions.  He came soon to see that if the school ever became prosperous, it must command and receive patronage from abroad; hence the necessity of a well-planned and well-conducted boarding department, and that under the charge of the principal instead of a steward, as it had before been done.

He therefore began to take boys from abroad into his own private family, and soon found so many applications, that he asked of the trustees the enlargement of the academy, as described above.

 In this enlargement, the building was fitted up for the accommodation of some thirty or forty boarders, who could be in the family of the principal, and under his immediate care.  Mr. HOWE had, in the seven or eight years that he had been in the academy, awakened a good deal of interest in educational matters.  He had traveled through the towns lecturing upon various topics of interest, introducing blackboards into the common schools, organizing associations of teachers and becoming personally acquainted with them, and ascertaining the educational needs of the schools in the vicinity; so that when the new building was opened in 1834, it was filled to its utmost capacity almost at once.

The record of the summer term of 1830 (the earliest found among Mr. HOWE's papers) shows an attendance of fifty-five students, of whom twenty-six were from abroad.  Among those names, and who will be recognized by many among us, were H. Channing BEALS, Jacob MORRIS, John Greig HOWELL, Selden MARION, Edmund CHESEBRO, Ambrose SPENCER, Elnathan SIMMONS, George WILLSON, and others.  The attendance increased regularly, so that during the last term in the old academy, ending April, 1833, the number in attendance was seventy-five.  On the 22d of July of that year the school was removed to the old court-house, with an attendance of sixty-six.  On the 15th of May, 1834, the school was opened in the new academy building, with an attendance of ninety-six, sixty-two of whom were from abroad.  In the term ending October 5, 1836, the attendance was one hundred and fifty-nine, and the term following, one hundred and eighty-six.

My acquaintance with the academy began in the spring of 1837.  I had heard of its good name, and having finished my second winter's school, I found myself on the 29th of May enrolled among the students of the academy.  My name stood on the roll one hundred and thirty-two, only nine more coming in that quarter after me.  The school year was then divided into two terms of five months each, with a month's vacation between them, each term being divided into two quarters of eleven weeks each.  During the term in which I entered the academy there were in the academic department one hundred and sixty-three students and forty-nine in the primary department, making in all two hundred and twelve.  Among the young men whom I found as students were, Samuel H. TORREY, GORHAM; Thomas S. BEALS, Thomas F. ROCHESTER, Rochester; Fernando JONES, Chicago; Charles C. FITZHUGH, Genesee; Walter S. HUBBELL, Philip SPENCER, John and James RANKINE, Richard CHURCH, Angelica; James G. SHEPARD; and in the primary department were such boys as George CHENEY, Thomas B. CARR, William B. DUNCAN, Albion ELLIS, Richard PIERSON, Edward SHEPARD, Dwight MUNGER.  The teachers I found in the academy were, Henry HOWE, principal; Horatio N. ROBINSON, A.M., professor of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Chemistry; Samuel S. HOWE, A.M., Robert McNEIL, A. B., professors of the Greek and Latin Languages; Louis PROVOST, teacher of the French Language; Jacob T. HOTCHKISS, A. B., Daniel WILLIS, teachers of English Grammar, Arithmetic, Geography, and Penmanship. 

The trustees of the academy at this time were, Oliver PHELPS, Moses ATWATER, Nathaniel W. HOWELL, Thomas BEALS, Evan JOHNS, John C. SPENCER, Walter HUBBELL, Francis GRANGER, Jared WILLSON, James D. BEMIS, Thaddeus CHAPIN, Alexander DUNCAN.  From a statement of the trustees, it appears that the plan of the academy embraced a thorough and extended course of English and mathematical study, instruction in the Latin and Greek classics to an advanced standing of one or two years in college, the teaching of the French language, and a department for the education of common-school teachers. 

The charges for tuition were four dollars a quarter, and board was one dollar and sixty-four cents per week.  There was also a "Family Organization," and Mr. HOWE took boys into his family for one hundred and thirty-five dollars a year.  The building was arranged for five teachers, and for the accommodation of about one hundred and fifty scholars, averaging about thirty scholars to a teacher.  The trustees believed that a school of that size, or a little less, was the most desirable in every point of view; that it could do more thorough and more satisfactory work than if it were much larger,---an opinion which the subsequent history of the academy has abundantly confirmed.  Mr. HOWE continued in the charge of the academy until March, 1849, when from failing health he resigned the principal ship, and retired upon a farm some two miles from the village, where he remained until his death, June 6, 1865. 

It is fitting that a brief notice of Mr. HOWE should be introduced here, for to him more than to any other one man is the academy indebted for its permanent foundation and subsequent prosperity.  Henry HOWE was born in Shoreham, Vermont, in 1797.  He was educated at Middlebury College.  After graduating, he was tutor in the college for two years, then was principal of Castleton Seminary, and subsequently principal of the academy at Pompey Hill, in Onondaga county of this State.  He came to Canandaigua in the spring of 1828, to take charge of the academy here.  He found it in a very unpromising condition.  The building was small, with no conveniences for a school or family; but with a singleness of purpose, and with great hopefulness, he entered upon the work which, although he did not then know it, proved to be the work of his life.  Under his energy the school began to show unmistakable evidences of a real prosperity.  The number of pupils largely increased, and prejudices and opposition to a liberal education began to give way.  He traveled through the country, as has already been stated, and by his labors created much interest in the education of our youth.  From the first he identified himself with every improvement relating to the village or county, and he soon had the satisfaction of seeing great numbers of young men gathered around him for instruction.  Mr. HOWE continued in charge of the academy for twenty-one years, and then, in 1849, retired to his farm, in the management of which he became greatly interested, and by which his health was to a good degree restored. 

But it was ere long apparent that his best energies had been spent, just as he was most glad they had been, in bringing the young men, only not of this community, but of many others, to the privileges of a refined and liberal education, and who now, all over the land, rise up and call him blessed.  I speak from a sense of personal attachment to him, which grew up in the intercourse of teacher and pupil.  He seemed to me to become personally interested in his pupils, and to enter largely into their sympathies and aims, and to unite, in a remarkable degree, the qualifications of a good teacher with the kindness of parental regard.  It is true he did not amass very much of this world's goods (faithful, earnest, self-denying teachers rarely do), but he did a noble work, and one which will outlive his own time, and result in untold blessings to other generations.  His work was that of a most pure and sincere Christian teacher, and his memory is fragrant with the odor of faith and love. 

Upon the resignation of Mr. HOWE, Mr. George WILLSON and myself conducted the academy as a day school for the spring term, when Mr. Marcius WILLSON, who had been a former student in the academy, and at which he prepared for Union College, was elected principal, and entered upon his labor in the fall of 1849. 

During the four years of Mr. WILLSON's administration, the course of instruction was considerably modified by the introduction of more extended historical study, and by a great enlargement of the department of the natural sciences.  Upon Mr. WILLSON's resignation, in 1853, I was chosen principal, which position I accepted, and have occupied without intermission until now, having just entered upon my twenty-fourth year of service in this relation.  During the first six years I resided in the building, and had the entire charge of the school in all its departments; but for the last seventeen years I have resided out of the building, and have intrusted the care of the building, premises, and boarding department to an associate or resident principal, Mr. Wm. M. McLAUGHLIN serving as such six years; Mr. Chas. S. HALSEY, seven years; Mr. E.J. PECK, two years, and Mr. E.S. HALL, two years.

It does not become me to speak very much in detail of the academy while it has been under my charge, any further than to give some of the results of that term of service. 

During this time there have been associated with me, in the work of instruction, seventy-two teachers, fourteen in the classical and higher English, ten in the modern languages, and thirty-nine in the English department.  The number of students in attendance, taking the sum of the yearly rolls, during those twenty-three years, is four thousand two hundred and one, and the whole number since 1837, the time of my first acquaintance with the academy, is seven thousand five hundred and seventy-five. 

The average attendance during the last twelve years of Mr. HOWE's administration was two hundred and twenty-four; during the four years of Mr. WILLSON's was one hundred and seventy-one, and during the term of my service is one hundred and eighty-three.  The largest attendance during Mr. HOWE's time was three hundred and twenty in 1838, in Mr. WILLSON's was one hundred and ninety in 1850; in mine, was two hundred and sixty-two in 1866.  Of those four thousand two hundred and one students above referred to, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-nine were from abroad, and of the whole seven thousand five hundred and seventy-five since 1837, three thousand five hundred and ninety-four, or forty-six per cent of the whole, were from out of town.  Hence, it appears that the academy has had a large support from those outside our village and town, from all sections of the country, especially from the great West. 

In these twenty-three years two hundred and fifteen young men, or about ten a year, have gone from the academy to college, or to higher professional schools, and of most of them it can be said that they reflected great credit upon the academy in which their preparatory studies were pursued.  Adding to the seven thousand five hundred and seventy-five, the whole number above mentioned; one thousand four hundred and forty, about the number in attendance during the first nine years of Mr. HOWE's service, makes a total of nine thousand and fifteen.  I have no means of knowing the number of pupils during the proceding thirty-three years of the academy, but it would be safe to say that it could not have been less than two thousand; so that without doubt, if the records of the academy could all be restored, there would be found upon them as yearly totals the names of over eleven thousand pupils, making probably more than seven thousand different individuals, of whom more than five hundred have gone from the academy to college, or to higher professional schools.

In closing this recital of facts we are justified in the inquiry, After this eighty years of service, what has Canandaigua Academy accomplished?  I have already referred to the number of pupils who have been taught here, and I believe I can say, without fear of contradiction, that the academy has maintained a reputation for sound and substantial instruction in contradistinction to that which is superficial and showy; thoroughness in all the departments of an English and classical course of study has been secured, though with how much labor none but a teacher can have any adequate conception.  The tendency of the times (and it has been increasing of late) is to haste and unsoundness in school-work.  The times are fast, and boys must be ready for business at twelve or fourteen; hence, time is too valuable to be spent in school, and consequently many of its better schools, including even the high schools of the cities, are made up in their higher grades of men-children; hence the multiplication of simple text-books, keys, and translations to make the road short and easy; and to hold a steady hand against this tide of popular feeling has been no easy task. 

The education of the day has been fast becoming showy and demonstrative in its character.  Exhibitions, parades, class-excursions to watering-places and to Europe, class-suppers, and expensive social organizations, including ball- and boating clubs, and the like, make up considerable of the work of many of our schools.  Extravagance of outfit in buildings, apparatus, and furniture, with all the paraphernalia which looks to a grand show, makes no small part of the educational policy of the day.  The same spirit shows itself, though not in so marked a degree, in our religious work.  The churches are working very much by conventions, by mammoth sea-side and lake gatherings, where, amid display and show, with music and banners, demonstrations are made in behalf of the Most High.  I would not wholly condemn these things, but so far as they divert the mind from earnest individual and personal work they are an evil which ought to be expurgated from our religious and educational systems.  In this respect our academy has been truly conservative, and nothing has been allowed to interfere with its proper and legitimate work, and there is no one thing which to-day affords the friends of the institution more profound satisfaction than this feature of our academic labor. 

The academy has ever been a patriotic institution.  Its very foundations were laid in a patriotic devotion to the new government, whose origin was coeval with its own, and a special provision was made for promoting in the minds of the youth to be educated here an ardent attachment to national liberty and the just rights of man; and nobly has it ever responded to the spirit of these provisions.  When the great rebellion of 1861 broke out, the academy was first and foremost among the schools of the State in a voluntary service to support the flag and to preserve the integrity of the government.  The young men gathered here at that time were stirred with patriotic impulses, and it was not in my heart to forbid them.  I readily yielded to their desire to enter the service, and so many left school for that purpose that during a portion of one year it had scarcely any young men left.  Teachers and scholars went together, and one class which I had formed with great satisfaction went bodily, and left but a single member, and he remained only because he was too young to enlist.  During the years 1862 to 1863 the number of pupils was considerably lessened by the war, but in 1864 the number was greatly increased, and in 1866 we were overwhelmed with pupils so that we had not sufficient place for them.  Two of our teachers that year, Major C.S. ALDRICH and Lieutenant E.C. CLARKE, and twenty-three pupils, were returned soldiers.  In our annual catalogue of 1864 there was published a "roll of honor" containing the names of one hundred and twenty-five who had gone into the service and who had been students in the academy during my administration, or the ten years previous, which list did not probably include more than half of the actual number, or the names of any who had been students previous to 1853, who are reckoned by hundreds, and who poured out their blood like water upon nearly every battle-field of the war.  Among those who fell in that conflict we recall the names of Henry WILLSON, Captain Charles WHEELER, Sergeant Augustus T. WILDER, one of our teachers, Edward CHIPMAN, Captain HERENDEEN, Frederic JEFFREY, James and Greig MULLIGAN, and many others who gave promise of eminent usefulness, and whose deaths show to us the cost of that sacrifice by which we preserve our national life. 

In pursuance of a resolution offered in the University Convocation, which meets annually in Albany, by General Prosper M. WETMORE, of New York, a committee was appointed to secure from the colleges and academies of the State the names and a brief history of those who had gone into the service from their institutions.  As one of that committee I undertook the gathering of such a history of our students; and, although it is not yet completed, I have done considerable in collecting brief records of their military life, a labor in which I have taken a great though a sad pleasure.  I have in this record one hundred and thirty-seven names, and I design to extend it so as to embrace the names of all who represented us in the army during the war. 

Another feature of our academic labor which should be mentioned, is its normal labor in the education of teachers.  The preparation of teachers for our common schools has for many years engaged the attention of the leading educators of the State and country, and more than forty years ago special provision was made by the Legislature of this State for this purpose.  The academy was among the first eight selected for this work, and the appointment has been renewed almost without interruption till the present time.  In the catalogue of 1848, the principal, Mr. HOWE, reported that "a teachers' class was first organized in the academy in 1830, and that since that time five hundred young men have entered that department."  And in the twenty-three years of my service here as principal more than four hundred more have been members of the teachers' class; so that during the forty years of the working of this department more than a thousand young men have been aided in their preparation for the teachers' work. 

It is proper to allude to what it has done in the matter of gratuitous instruction.  As has been stated, it was in the original plan of the academy that provision should be made for aiding meritorious young men or lads who, by reason of poverty, were hindered from pursuing such a course of study as they would be glad to do, and hence the academy has always granted her tuition to such as seem to need it and were worthy of it.  During the twenty-three years of my service as principal a considerable number each year have thus been aided, many of whom have been the sons of poor but patriotic men who fell or were broken down in health in the conflict of the great rebellion. 

It would not be inappropriate to close this brief sketch of the academy by a reference to some of those teachers who are best remembered, and those students who subsequently achieved a fair renown in some field of human labor.  Among the former, in addition to those already referred to, may be mentioned Mr. Marcius WILLSON, who, as principal, succeeded Mr. HOWE in 1849.  He entered the academy in 1830 as a student, prepared for Union College, at which he graduated, and afterwards taught in New York and New Jersey before he assumed the charge of the academy.  He was very successful as a teacher, a man of great culture and of ripe scholarship, the author of "Willson's Histories" and "Willson's Readers," the most beautifully illustrated books of the kind that have probably ever been published in this country, and from the sale of which he is receiving a handsome income. 

His present residence is at Vineland, New Jersey, upon a plantation devoted to fruit-culture, for which he has great taste, and in the management of which, and in literary labors, he finds his time occupied. 

Among other classical teachers may be mentioned Alvan LOTHROP, John M. GREENE, now pastor of a Congregational church at Lowell, Massachusetts; A.S. ZEIKE, late pastor of St. Peter's church, of Rochester; assistant principal Wm. M. M'LAUGHLIN, since principal of the Mexico Academy, and at present principal of an academy in Connecticut; Mr. Chas. S. HALSEY, now principal of the High School at Schenectady, New York. 

Of the teachers in the mathematics and the natural sciences, H.N. ROBINSON, the author of Robinson's mathematical works, is best remembered by students thirty or forty years ago.  Later, Moses H. WELLS, now a pastor of a Congregational church in New Hampshire, was very much beloved as a teacher and as a man. 

Among those whose names are cherished with great affection as teachers in the intermediate department since my own connection with the academy are Frederic S. JEWELL, Daniel L. KIEHLE, the former of whom is a clergyman of the Episcopal church, and the latter of the Presbyterian church, in Wisconsin, Major C.S. ALDRICH, now a merchant of Bloomington, Illinois, Lieutenant E.C. CLARKE, now of Naples, New York, and Frank H. WISEWELL, now secretary of the New York department of Missions of the American Sunday-School Union. 

Of students, I have already mentioned Marcius WILLSON, who entered the academy November 15, 1830, and remained there until he completed his preparatory studies to college. 

A few days later, Stephen A. DOUGLAS, from Brandon, Vermont, at the age of seventeen, became a student, and remained until the last of December, 1832, or about two years.  Mrs. DOUGLAS, the mother of Stephen, was a widow, and married a Mr. GRANGER, of Manchester, in this county, and hence made that her future home, bringing her son and daughter, afterwards Mrs. Julius N. GRANGER, with her.  The record shows DOUGLAS to have studied, in the two years he was in the academy,  Latin grammar, Latin reader, Latin tutor, ten books of Virgil, Greek grammar, Greek reader, six Cicero's orations, algebra, etc.  After leaving the academy he entered the law-office of Walter HUBBELL, Esq., where he remained until June, 1833, when (I copy from a letter of his to his former teacher, Mr. HOWE, dated Jacksonville, Illinois, January 14, 1836) "I left for Cleveland, where a few weeks after I was taken sick with bilious fever, and was confined to my bed until some time in October, when I took a boat to Cincinnati, thence to Louisville, St. Louis, and to this place, where I have since remained.  Upon my arrival here I was reduced in funds to less than five dollars, and was under the necessity of teaching a common school for one quarter, at the expiration of which time I obtained a license to practice law, and opened my office in March, 1834.  I pursued my profession with sufficient success to yield me a handsome support until February, 1835, when I was elected by the State Legislature to the office of State's Attorney, which station I now occupy."  With Mr. DOUGLAS' subsequent history all are familiar, as he rose to a commanding position among his fellow-men, being the recognized leader of the Democratic party of the country for many years, and the candidate of that party for the presidency in 1860.  Mr. DOUGLAS as a student was earnest, industrious, and thorough; more distinguished as a debater, however, than a scholar; and in the struggles of his early manhood furnishes a fair picture of the means by which, and through which, young men of purpose and ability rise to distinction and honor.  As classmates of Mr. DOUGLAS may be mentioned Elbridge G. LAPHAM, of Farmington, who afterwards became a distinguished lawyer, and is now the representative in Congress, and Rollin GERMAIN, afterwards a lawyer of distinction at Black Rock.  These were students in the old building.  Among those a little later were Gideon GRANGER and George WILLSON, the former a graduate of Yale, and the latter of Union, whose deaths in early manhood were felt in the community as an affliction of unusual severity.  Of the same time may be mentioned James RANKINE, now Rev. James RANKINE, D.D., formerly president of Hobart College, and now rector of the Memorial church of Seneca; Edmund B. HUNT, afterwards Lieutenant HUNT, of the government service, and a prominent member of the Coast Survey Corps.  In later times still, and since my connection with the academy, may be mentioned Benjamin T. GUE, of Farmington, since lieutenant-governor of Iowa; William W. HOWE, son of Mr. Henry HOWE, since a member of the Supreme Bench of Missouri, and now a prominent lawyer in New Orleans; D. Fernand HENRY, now City Engineer of Detroit, who is favorably known both at home and abroad as the inventor of an apparatus for determining the amount of water discharged by rivers, etc.; Charles E. CHENEY, since the assistant bishop of the Reformed Episcopal church; George A. FORSYTH, who, during the late war, as also subsequently among the Indians, was a member of General Sheridan's staff, and who was an apt disciple of his master in all that relates to dashing and brilliant warfare.  But this list will increase by hundreds if I repeat the names of but a tithe of those who have been found among the eminent and noble men of many a community in our broad land, or who are just coming into the activities of young manhood with the brightest promise for the future.  It will belong to some future historian to write up the records of the academy in these later years, and with such an one I am content to leave it.        


History of Ontario Co., NY  

  Published 1893

Educational   Pg. 225 - 229


The village of Canandaigua has always been noted for the excellence of its educational institutions, and at least one of them, founded nearly 100 years ago, has acquired a State wide reputation.  Others have also been prominent, but the Canandaigua Academy early attained a grade of excellence that placed it among the best in the State; and that standing it has ever since maintained.  However, before referring to this noted institution we may briefly note some of the others which existed during the early history of the village, a number of them being now numbered with things of the past, while a few became permanent and have a present relation to their original character. 

As early as 1792 a school was started in the village, said to have been taught by Major WALLIS; and in 1804, Mrs. WHALLEY opened a young ladies boarding and select school.  These are believed to have been the first schools in the village. 

On the establishment of the public school system in the State, the village of Canandaigua was divided into three districts--Nos. 11, 12 and 13, but subsequently 11 was changed to 10, and 12 to 11.  In 1810 a brick school-house was erected in No. 11, on the square, west of the town-house site, and in 1812 another brick school was built in No. 10, about opposite the Catholic church, on land obtained from Colonel ANTIS.  Objections were raised against the building on the square, to  remedy which Judge ATWATER offered favorable terms to the trustees which induced them to buy lands opposite the old burying-ground, and on the lot they erected a brick school-house which continued in use until the school on Greig street was built, in 1851. 

School District No. 10 was organized between 1810 and 1813, the records dating from the year last named.  Among the early teachers in this district were Ann GOODING, ______ NEWCOMB, Joseph RYAN, Ira WESTON, Edson CARR, B. STALL, Thomas SELLMAN and Warner BUNDAY.  A new school-house was built in the district in 1839, and enlarged in 1851.  In 1870 preparations were made for the erection of a still larger school building, but nothing was in fact accomplished until 1875 when a one-story building was erected.  In May of this year District 10 and 11 were consolidated into a Union School District, known as No. 11. 

School District No. 13 is understood as having been organized in 1830, but no record appears earlier than the meeting held October 10, 1832, although a school house had been erected before that time.  A new building was erected in 1832 on Chapel street, at a cost of nearly $500.  One of the first teachers was Hiram BLANCHARD, followed by George B. NORTHRUP, Abigail MUNGER, Bennett MUNGER, Messrs. Oakley and Haskell, Marshall FINLEY, A. R. SIMMONS, M. L. RAWSON and others, about in the order named.  In this connection we may also state that in 1848 a school for colored children was opened in this district, taught by O. L. CROSIER, followed by S. A. SLOAT. 

In the Union District, after the consolidation, the trustees at once selected a suitable location for a large and attractive school building, one which should be an ornament to a village long noted for the superiority of its educational institutions.  For the purpose named a committee was chosen, and in May, 1875, the BENNETT property on the west side of Main street, opposite the court-house was purchased at a cost of $11,000.  During the years 1875 and 1876 the High School was erected at a total cost, including furnishing, of about $40,000.  The building has a front of 79 feet, and is 114 feet in depth, and three stories high. 

The Canandaigua Academy--This famous institution is one of the oldest of its class in Western or Central New York, and has an interesting and valuable history, yet the story of its founding and career may be briefly narrated.  The academy without doubt owes its origin to the generosity of Oliver PHELPS and Nathaniel GORHAM, but in its establishment and erection a large number of prominent residents of Canandaigua and vicinity had a part, and hence are entitled to honor with the founders of the enterprise. 

On the 28th of January, 1791, Nathaniel GORHAM and Oliver PHELPS, proprietors of the vast Phelps and Gorham Purchase, conveyed to certain trustees in consideration of their "own pleasure," all that tract of land which thenceforth became known as the "Academy Tract," for the purpose of "establishing an academy or seminary of learning," in the county of Ontario.  In February, 1795, application was made to the Regents of the University for an act of incorporation, which resulted in the passage of such an act on the 4th of March following, and naming a board of trustees as follows: Nathaniel GORHAM, Oliver PHELPS, Israel CHAPIN, Nathaniel GORHAM, jr., Thomas MORRIS, Arnold POTTER, John SMITH, Timothy HOSMER, Charles WILLIAMSON, James WADSWORTH, Oliver L. PHELPS, Daniel PENFIELD, Ambrose HULL, John CODDING, John WICKHAM, Moses ATWATER, Judah COLT, Israel CHAPIN, jr., and Amos HALL. 

At the first meeting of the trustees, July 12, 1796, the name of Nathaniel W. HOWELL was substituted in place of Israel CHAPIN, and that of Dudley SALTONSTALL in place of Nathaniel GORHAM.  At the same time a committee was appointed to solicit and receive subscriptions for the benefit of the proposed academy, and the result was donations of land to the extent of 6,300 acres, and cash to the amount of $4,581.  In the same year, also, the erection of the academy building was begun, and so far proposed that school was opened in the fall, although several years passed before it was fully completed. 

The early records of the academy were so obscure and incomplete that there cannot be given accurately the name of the first principal or other teachers.  However, among the early instructors in various capacities there can be recalled the names of Dudley SALTONSTALL, Eliphalet COLEMAN, Thomas BEALS, Revs. CHAPMAN and HOWES, Rev. Ezra WITTER, and Rev. James STEVENSON.  The teacher last mentioned came to the academy in 1818, remained four years, and was succeeded by Ichabod SPENCER, afterward a celebrated divine of Brooklyn, NY.  George WILSON followed Mr. SPENCER, and in the spring of 1828 was succeeded by Henry HOWE, under whose administration the institution became practically self-sustaining.  Also during Mr. HOWE's term (in 1836) the academy building was materially repaired and enlarged; in fact, was substantially rebuilt, and so arranged as to admit boarding students.  Mr. HOWE continued his services at the head of the institution until March, 1849, then retiring because of failing health, and was succeeded by George WILSON and Noah T. CLARKE, the latter becoming principal in 1858, and remaining in charge until June, 1882, when Rev. George R. SMITH was chosen to the position.  In September, 1885, the present principal, Prof. J. Carlton NORRIS, entered upon his duties. 

The present board of trustees of the Canandaigua Academy is as follows: Walter HUBBELL, James C. SMITH, William GORHAM, William H. SMITH, Noah T. CLARKE, Frank H. HAMLIN, Rev. Andrew L. FREEMAN, John D. McKECHNIE, Robert W. WALMSLEY, Charles A. RICHARDSON, Rev. Nelson M. CALHOUN, and Rev. H. C. TOWNLEY.  The officers of the board are: James C. SMITH, president; Frank H. HAMLIN, secretary and treasurer. 

The Ontario Female Seminary.-- In 1825, through the efforts of James D. BEMIS, Nathaniel JACOBS, Walter HUBBELL, Jared WILLSON, and Mark H. SIBLEY, this once notable seminary was founded and established.  The building, a large two-story brick structure, was erected on the west side of Main street, on the site now occupied by the McKECHNIE mansion.  The names of the first principals are unknown, but in 1830 Miss Hannah UPHAM, associated with Arabella SMITH, were placed in charge, and continued, the former until 1848, and the latter till 1842.  In July, 1848, Edward G. TYLER and wife assumed charge of the institution, and four years later the capacity of the building was much increased.  In July, 1854, Benjamin RICHARDS and wife succeeded to the principalship, although Mr. TYLER maintained a connection with the seminary until 1867, at which time Mr. RICHARDS assumed sole charge of its affairs. 

Notwithstanding the favorable conditions under which it was founded and began its career, the Ontario Female Seminary continued in existence only half a century.  The causes which precipitated its decline and final extinction were various, and need no recital here.  The institution was founded with an honest purpose, and upon that basis was ever conducted, but from lack of support was compelled to suspend operations.

The Granger Place School.--In the year 1816, Gideon GRANGER, postmaster-general under Thomas JEFFERSON, and one of the most famous early lawyers of Ontario county, built a family mansion at Canandaigua, on the grounds used by the troops for barracks during the War of 1812, but which were afterward tastefully laid out and adorned with beautiful foliage trees, shrubbery and flower gardens.  The mansion here erected was maintained in all its beauty and desirability for many years, and in 1876 fittingly became an institution of learning, for the especial use of young ladies, and under the name above given--The Granger Place School.  It was founded in 1876, and among its prominent patrons may be named Dr. James Carey THOMAS, of Baltimore, Md.; Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. MORSE, and Rev. ____ and Mrs. A. H. STRONG, of Rochester; J. L. BROWNELL, of Nyack, NY; Joseph POWELL, of Towanda; Sophia E. HOWARD, M. D., of Fairport, NY; Mrs. Gideon GRANGER, Revs. J. H. FRANCE, S. E. EASTMAN, and Annis F. EASTMAN, of Canandaigua; Mrs. L. A. SKINNER, of Westfield; and Mr. and Mrs. T. J. LEACH, and Thomas B. HEERMANS, of Syracuse. 

In the course of time the GRANGER property was offered for sale, and the citizens of Canandaigua, appreciating the advantages of a superior school for girls and young ladies, raised a fund to assist Miss Caroline A. COMSTOCK, Miss Harriet J. HASBROUCK, Miss Jane M. SLOCUM, Mrs. Charlotte Parmelee CROCKER, all of them cultivated and experienced instructors, in purchasing the estate and founding the school.  This was in 1876, and very soon afterward the school was opened.  Its object is "to develop womanly gifts and graces by the best methods; to substitute true culture in place of showy accomplishments; to impress the idea of responsibility in daily tasks, and to inculcate the sentiment that all attainment is to be sought as a means of usefulness, rather than an end sufficient in itself."  The course of study occupies to preparatory, three academic, and four collegiate years.


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