1895 Landmarks of Oswego County, NY Book




Many thanks and appreciation to Sheila Lofft Strickland for her time and work in transcribing this Civil War Section from the 1895 Landmarks of Oswego County, NY Book. 
War Meetings --- Prompt Response to Lincoln’s Call for Volunteers --- The 24th Regiment --- The 81st --- The 110th --- The Soldiers Relief Society --- The Threatened Draft --- The 147th Regiment --- The 184th  --- Other Military Organizations --- The 21st New York Independent Battery --- Draft of August 4, 1863 --- Action of the County Respecting Bounties --- Filling the Quotas --- Money Raised by the County and Towns for War Purposes.

   The long reign of peace and prosperity in this country was ended.  The time had arrived when the question of the stability of the Union was to be tested.  It is not within the purpose or scope of this work to discuss the causes that led to the great Civil war, nor to make a record of the national events that characterized that conflict.  The story has been written more carefully and exhaustively than that of any war in the world’s history.  Every State and every county has in its archives complete records and muster rolls of each regiment, company and soldier from the respective localities, while every library has one or more works devoted to the subject.  It is, therefore, presumable that every intelligent person is familiar with the prominent details of the civil strife of 1861-65.  It  remains for us here to briefly note the chief events of a military character that took place in this county, with concise descriptions of the several completed organizations that went from here, with some statistics that will be valuable for reference.

   When, on the 12th of April 1861, the enemies of the Union fired their first gun against the flag of the country, a tide of patriotic enthusiasm and indignation swept over the entire country.  It was the culmination of the stirring political events which for nearly a year had kept the public mind in a fever of excitement and anxiety.  As early as June 4, 1860, the Lincoln Club was formed in Oswego, with De Witt C. Littlejohn, president, to aid in the political campaign which resulted in the election of Abraham Lincoln.  Ratification meetings were frequent and enthusiastic; an Oswego delegation attended one of these meetings in Fulton, June 6; and on the 21st of that month a great gathering assembled at Doolittle Hall, the call for which was signed by hundreds of prominent citizens.  Companies of "Wide Awakes" had already been organized, and previous to the meeting they marched to the starch factory, where a pole 140 feet high had been raised.  The meeting was called to order by Cheney Ames, and Mr. Littlejohn presided.  The principal speakers were D. J. Mitchell, of Syracuse, and Dwight H. Bruce, both eloquent men.  The Oswego Lincoln Guards were organized in August, to continue through the campaign, with Dr. A. VanDyke, president.

   On the 12th of October a grand mass meeting was held, over which Henry Fitzhugh presided, with a long list of vice presidents, one from each ward and town.  Two speakers’ stands had to be erected in the West Park to accommodate the crowds.  At the lower stand Cheney Ames presided, and Joshua R. Giddings spoke; while Lieutenant Governor Noble addressed the assemblage at the upper stand.  It was estimated that there were 6,000 people present.  A “Wide Awake” parade was made in the evening.

   Oswego county gave Lincoln a majority of 3,638, which was considerably in excess of the usual Republican majority.  On the 15th of November a ratification meeting was held in Littlefield Hall, under the auspices of a large committee of arrangements; one hundred guns were fired and a great parade was made.  The year closed with gloomy forebodings.  The call to arms, which followed the first gun fired upon Fort Sumter, found an echo in every loyal heart, and thousands sprang forward to offer their services, and if necessary their lives in defense of the perpetuity of the Union.

   On the 15th of April, 1861, President Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers to aid in suppressing an uprising which was then; generally considered as little more than a short-lived riot.  Within fifteen days after the call was issued, 350,000 men had offered their services to the government.  Had the prescience of the government been equal to the enthusiasm of the people, all that vast body of volunteers would have been put in the field, and much bloodshed might have been saved.  The call was for three months of service, and it soon became apparent that the army could scarcely be armed and equipped before their time would expire.

   In the brotherhood of loyal States, New York was foremost in determination that the Union should endure, and, under the first call, nearly 14,000 men went forward.  In common with other localities, Oswego county promptly responded to the president's proclamation.  Public meetings were called, at which speakers eloquently portrayed the situation; martial music filled the air; the stars and stripes were unfurled from hundreds of conspicuous points; the peaceful occupations of the people were almost abandoned; in the newspaper offices bulletins were eagerly scanned by anxious eyes; and military spirit and enthusiasm prevailed everywhere.

   On the 16th of April, 1861, a meeting was held in Oswego and measures adopted for the immediate raising of a regiment of volunteers.  Recruiting began with enthusiasm, and on the morning of April 26 a company, under command of John D O’Brien, one of the bravest of soldiers, started for Elmira.  Captain O’Brien was the first officer commissioned in this State under the president's first call, and his was the first company to rendezvous at that place, where so many regiments afterwards organized.  This company was rapidly followed by Co. B, Capt Edward M. Paine; Co. C, Capt.Frank Miller; Co. D, from Parish, Capt. Melzar Richards (afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the 24th Cavalry); Co. E, from Volney, Capt. Orville Jennings; Co.F, Oswego city, Capt Archibald Preston; Co. G, Sandy Creek, Capt. W. D. Ferguson (afterwards major of the 184th Regiment); Co.H, Volney, Capt. Albert Taylor (afterwards major of the 24th Cavalry); Co. I, Oswego city, Capt. Levi Beardsley; and Co. K, from Ellisburg, Jefferson county, Capt. Andrew J. Barney, subsequently promoted to major.  So rapidly were these companies filled that the regiment was mustered in on the 17th of May.  The following were the regimental and line officers:

   Colonel, Timothy Sullivan; lieutenant-colonel. Samuel R. Beardsley; major; Jonathan Tarbell; surgeon, J. B. Murdoch, M.D.; assistant surgeon, Lawrence Reynolds, M. D.; adjutant, Robert Oliver, jr.; quartermaster, Charles T. Richardson; chaplain, Rev.Mason Gallagher.
   Line Officers – Co. A, captain, John D. O'Brien; first lieutenant, Samuel H. Brown; second lieutenant, Daniel C. Hubbard.
Co. B - Captain, Edward M. Paine; first lieutenant, B. Hutcheson; second lieutenant, William L. Yeckley
Co. C - Captain, Frank Miller; first lieutenant, John Ratigan; second lieutenant, William L. Peavey
Co. D - Captain, Melzar Richards; first lieutenant, Severin Beaulieu; second lieutenant, William Wills
Co. E -.Captain, Orville J. Jennings, first lieutenant, Richard J. Hill; second lieutenant, Ten Eyck G. Pawling
Co. F - Captain, Archibald Preston; first lieutenant, Patrick Cleary; second lieutenant, Thomas Murray
Co. G - Captain, William D. Ferguson; first lieutenant, Calvin Burch; second lieutenant, Henry B. Corse
Co. H - Captain, Albert Taylor; first lieutenant: Henry Sandovel; second lieutenant, Edson D. Coit
Co. I - Captain, Levi Beardsley; first lieutenant, Theo. Dalrymple; second lieutenant, Norman Holly
Co. K - Captain, Andrew J. Barney; first lieutenant, John P. Buckley; second lieutenant, Jonathan R. Ayres

   This regiment was numbered the 24th, and after receiving its equipments was ordered to Washington via Baltimore.  There they remained in camp, diligently drilling, until the battle of Bull Run - the initial conflict, which, after almost being made a grand victory for the Northern troops, was turned to a disastrous rout by the opportune arrival of a small force of reinforcements for the enemy.  The 24th Regiment did not share in that battle, but on the day following (July 22) they marched out of Washington city and to Bailey's Cross Roads, meeting on the way the flying remnants of the Union army.  At the Cross Roads the regiment was placed on picket, and was then the only organized force between the victorious Southerners and the city.  They held that picket line for three weeks, without tents, blankets, or other.baggage.  On being relieved from this arduous duty, they encamped on. Arlington Heights, where they were brigaded with the 14th New York (Zouaves), the 22d and 30th New York Volunteers, and about three months later, the 2d U. S. Sharpshooters.  In the fall the regiment moved to Upton Hill; built.Fort Upton; and remained there during the winter.

   With the general movement of the Army of the Potomac, under McClellan, in the spring of 1862, the 24th advanced to Bristoe Station, and proceeded thence a week later to Catlett's Station.  From that point began the heavy march towards Fredericksburg.  Reaching Falmouth they encountered the enemy, and drove him across the Rappahannock.  The regiment was warmly received in Falmouth by the colored population, who thought their day of deliverance had come.  While in camp at Falmouth the regiment and the brigade in which it was placed passed from the command of General Augur to that of General Hatch son of M. P.Hatch, a former Oswegonian.  Camp life was varied by marches and countermarches to Spottsylvania and Front Royal.  By the change above noted and others, the 24th became the senior regiment of the First Brigade and First Corps, which position it maintained until this corps terminated its existence by the expiration of the terms of the two-year men.  General Burnside relieved them at Fredericksburg, and they moved under Pope to Cedar Mountain, where the battle of Cedar Mountain was fought.  On the 9th of August, 1862, began what has passed into history as Pope's retreat, in which the regiment had the post of honor as rear guard.  In the succeeding engagement at Sulphur Springs the 24th was under fire in support of a battery.  At Rappahannock Station, also, they were under fire, and a shot from a battery killed a member of Co. D.  From here the march was taken up for Gainesville, which was reached on August 28.  Here began the series of engagements which are known as the second battle of Bull Run.  During the night of the 28th the 24th Regiment supported Gibbon's Brigade.  Towards evening of the 29th, the regiment being: under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Beardsley, a sharp struggle of an hour took place between Hatch's Brigade under command of Colonel Sullivan of the 24th, and Doubleday’s Brigade (Union), and A. P. Hill's Confederate Division.  In this engagement the 24th performed heroic duty, and lost twenty-nine killed, 186 wounded, and 124 missing.  Among the killed was Major Barney, who fell fighting at the head of his command.

   The details of the succeeding operations of this regiment and of the “Iron Brigade,” as it had been named, cannot be followed here.  At South Mountain and Antietam the regiment covered itself with glory.  In the former engagement a charge was made while the regiment was under the command of the brave Captain O'Brien, in which he displayed the greatest heroism.  At Antietam, while still in command of the regiment, Captain O'Brien was wounded, losing his leg; thirty-three others also were wounded.

   After six weeks in camp at Sharpsburg, the First Corps crossed the Potomac and met the enemy in skirmishes and raids among the mountain gaps, crowding them in upon the Richmond defenses.  From Warrenton, where the command of the army passed to General Burnside, the First Corps marched to Brooks' Station on the Fredericksburg Railroad, where it occupied the extreme left.  At Fredericksburg, Co. B held the picket line, under command of W. L. Yeckley.  When the line retreated the picket line was left for fear its withdrawal would inform the enemy of the retreat.  Just as the pontoons were about to be taken away, the picket was recalled from its perilous position.  After the unsuccessful assault on Fredericksburg, the army retired to Belle Plain and went into winter quarters.

   In May, 1863 under General Hooker, the Iron Brigade occupied the extreme left in Reynolds’ Division, and in that order went into the second battle of Fredericksburg.  When the retreat was ordered this brigade covered the movement as rear guard, and was the last to cross the Rappahannock.  From this time until .May 17, the 24th was on picket duty along the river, when, their term having expired, they were•ordered to Elmira and mustered out on the 29th day of May, 1863.  The battle flag of the 24th bears the following inscriptions: "Falmouth, Sulphur Springs, Rappahannock Station, Gainesville, Manassas, South Mountain, Antietam, First Fredericksburg, Second Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville.”

   The Eighty-first Regiment - The disastrous battle of Bull Run opened the eyes of the North, and it was clearly seen that probably a prolonged war was begun.  Under authority of acts of May 3, July 22, and July 25, 1861, 500,000 volunteers had been called for, for terms varying from six months to three years, under which calls New York State sent about 31,000 for two years and about 90,000 for three years.  The calls of May and July led to the adoption of measures for raising a second regiment in Oswego county.  On the 29th of August 1861, a meeting was held in Doolittle Hall, over which E. B. Talcott presided.  William Duer was the principal speaker, and the immediate raising of another regiment was determined upon.  The work of recruiting began at once and was pushed rapidly forward.  On the 14th of September, Co. A, Captain Raulston, was mustered in at Fort Ontario, and seven others followed on the 17th, of which A, B, C and D, were from Oswego city; E, from Gilbertsville; F, from Fulton; G, from Syracuse; and H, from Hannibal.  The ninth company was mustered :in October 1, from the town of Oswego.  In January, 1862, the tenth company was furnished from the town of Hastings.  But the regiment was not yet filled, and, owing to some internal disagreements, recruiting proceeded slowly.  On the 20th of January, 1862, the regiment, under command of Colonel Rose, a West Point graduate, was sent to Albany, where it received about 350 men from Oneida county.  This filled the ranks.  As finally arranged, the field and staff officers were as follows:

   Colonel, Edwin Rose; lieutenant-colonel, Jacob J. DeForest; major, John McAmbely; surgeon, William H Rice; assistant-surgeon, Carrington Macfarlane; adjutant, Edward A. Cooke; quartermaster, Roger A. Francis; chaplain, David McFarland; sergeant-major, James L. Belden; commissary-sergeant, N. H. Green; quartermaster-sergeant, John F. Young; hospital steward, C. S. Hart; drum-major W. S. Winters
Line Officers - Co. A, Captain, William C. Raulston; first lieutenant Hamilton Littlefield, jr.; second lieutenant Elias A. Fish
Co. B - Captain, Augustus G. Bennett; first lieutenant, Hugh Anderson; second lieutenant Martin J. DeForest
Co. C - Captain, Franklin Hannahs; first lieutenant, Orin J. Fitch; second lieutenant, Seth J. Steves
Co. D - Captain, L. C. Adkins; first lieutenant, John G. Phillips, second lieutenant, R. D. S. Tyler.
Co. E - Captain, Lyman M. Kingman; first lieutenant, W. C. Newberry; second lieutenant, D. G. Harris.
Co. F. - Captain, T. Dwight Stow; first lieutenant, Edward S. Cooke; second lieutenant, D. C. Rix
Co. G - Captain, Henry C. Thompson; first lieutenant, Henry H. Hamilton; second lieutenant, H. W. Green
Co. H. - Captain, John B. Raulston; first lieutenant, John W. Oliver; second lieutenant, Peter French
Co. I - Captain, D. B. White; first lieutenant, Willard W. Ballard; second lieutenant,.B. F. Wood
Co. K - Captain, J. Dorman Steele; first lieutenant, George W. Berriman second lieutenant, L J Steele

   On the 21st of February the regiment was ordered to New York, whence they proceeded on the 5th of March to Washington.  There the men remained in camp twenty days, and on the 28th of March marched to Alexandria, whence they embarked for Fortress Monroe, arriving on the 1st of April.  From this date until May 31st, the regiment was on the march or in camp, acting as reserve at the battle of Williamsburg, and reaching Seven Pines on the 28th, where they remained until the bloody engagement of the 31st was fought.  In this battle the 81st was assigned to the left of Casey's Division, unsupported in an open field.  The regiment here underwent its baptism of fire and stood the ordeal heroically. Lieutenant-Colonel DeForest was shot in the breast; Major McAmbley and Captain Kingman, with many privates, were killed and left on the field.  The regiment passed to the command of Capt. William C. Raulston.  Darkness ended the battle and the men slept on their arms.  The next day was spent in burying the dead, and on the 2d of June McClellan issued an address to the army, to inspire the troops with courage for the decisive battle which he said was at hand.  The 81st marched to White Oak Swamp; went into camp and remained until the 28th; and were there joined by Colonel Rose, who had been absent a month on account of sickness.  On the morning of the 30th a weary march was made to Malvern Hill.  July 1 the regiment was assigned to the reserve corps and on the following day started for Harrison's Landing.  On the 8th they encamped near the James River, remaining, thirty-nine days, and while here Colonel Rose resigned and the command devolved upon Major Raulston.  On the 16th of August the regiment started on the march that took them in the ensuing few days to Yorktown, where they went into camp and remained until the last of December.  On the 29th of December they left Yorktown for North Carolina, and the following three months were passed mostly in camp at Caroline City, and St. Helena Island.  In that vicinity a month more was spent in rapid changes of position, bringing them to Morehead City on the 2d of May, 1863.  At this time Major D. B. White, with Co.'s B, D, and G, was ordered to Fort Macon to perform garrison duty.  Captain Ballard, with Co.'s E, I, and K, was assigned to the provost guard at Beaufort, and the remaining four, Co.'s A, L, F, and H, remained at Morehead City, as headquarters, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Raulston.  Several important raids were made from this point during the next few months.  On the 18th of October the regiment embarked for Newport News, where they encamped on the same ground occupied by them in April, 1862.  They remained here a month, and then went to Northwest Landing, about twenty-five miles from Norfolk.  

   January 1, 1864, the men who had less than one year to serve were given the opportunity to enlist for three years and take a furlough of 30 days.  On the 23d of February more than two-thirds of the entire regiment had re-enlisted, and they started for home, reaching New York on the 29th of February.  In Syracuse the veterans were met by a delegation, were breakfasted, and at four o'clock reached Oswego.  Marching to Doolittle Hall, they were received and banqueted by the ladies of the city and given a royal welcome by all.

   The 81st again left for the front on the 12th of April 1864, and arrived at Yorktown on the 18th.  Here they were assigned to the First Brigade, First Division, Eighteenth Corps of the Army of the James.  May 4 they proceeded to Bermuda Hundred, whence they marched six miles from the landing and began the construction of fortifications.  On the 9th, while deployed as skirmishers, they met the troops of Beauregard and drove them from the field.  During the following month the regiment was almost uninterruptedly engaged in skirmishes and minor battles.  At Drury’s Bluff, on the 16th of May, 1864, the regiment occupied an important position, and twice repulsed the enemy’s charges.  On the 1st of June, after having joined the Army of the Potomac, the 81st went into the bloody battle of Cold Harbor.  On this sanguinary field, on the 2d, the regiment lost over seventy in killed and wounded.  Among the killed were Captains Ballard and Martin, and Lieut. J.W. Burke, of Co. K.  Five other captains were wounded.  At the end of the twelve days in which the regiment was engaged at and near Cold Harbor, two-thirds failed to answer at roll-call, and an order for provisional consolidation into four companies was issued.  But, instead of the expected respite, they were marched to Petersburg, and on the 15th drove the enemy from his first line of works, and participated in the brilliant and successful charge of the Eighteenth Corps.  On the 16th the regiment supported an assaulting column, and on the 26th received a charge from the enemy, which they bravely withstood and almost annihilated the foe.  July 10 the 81st returned to the Petersburg trenches.  August 2 they marched to Appomattox River, where they remained until the 26th, when they returned to Bermuda Hundred.  In the succeeding battle of Fort Harrison, the 8lst was the first to plant its flag on the enemy's works, and nine officers and many privates were killed or wounded.  Captain Rix, Lieutenants Tuttle and Nethway were killed, and Lieutenants Dolbear and Porter were mortally wounded.  During the two days of the fighting the regiment lost one hundred in killed and wounded.  The regiment next participated in the engagement near Seven Pines on the 29th of August, and thence later returned to Chapin’s Farm.

   On the 5th of November the regiment was ordered to New York, where it remained during the presidential election, returning to camp near Richmond.  When the Confederate capital fell the 81st was the first infantry regiment to enter the city.  The regiment was mustered out August 1, 1865.

   In recognition of its gallant services the 8lst was presented with a stand of colors by the War Department, bearing the inscriptions: Yorktown, Seven Pines, Savage Station, Malvern Hill, Winton, Violet Station, Kingsland Creek, Drury's Bluff, May 13, 15, 16; Cold Harbor June 1, 2, 3; Petersburg, June 15, 16, and 24, and July 9 and 30; Fort Harrison (Chapin's Farm), September 29 and 30; Fair Oaks (2d), October 27, 1864.

Following is a list of the engagements, sieges, skirmishes and raids in which the 81st took part:  Siege of Yorktown, May 3 1862; Williamsburg, May 5, 1862; Bottom's Bridge, May 11, 1862; Savage Station, May 22, 1862; Fair Oaks, May 30, 1862; Seven Pines, May 31, 1862; Chickahominy, June 24, 1862; Charles City Cross Roads, June 25, 1862; Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862; siege of Charleston, April 7-10, 1863; raid on Trenton, July 4, 1863; raid on Winton, July 28-30, 1863; raid on Violet Station, May 9, 1864; Kingsland Creek, May 13, 1864; Drury's Bluff, May 16, 1864; Cold Harbor, June 1-12, 1864 Petersburg, June 15, August 26, 1864; Chapin’s Farm, September 29, 1864; Fair Oaks (2d), October 27, 1864; entered Richmond April 3, 1865.

   The One Hundred and Tenth Regiment - Calls for volunteers, each for 300,000 men for three years, were made by the President July 2, and August 4, 1862.  If the various States and counties did:not fill their quotas under these calls, a draft was anticipated, and the people of:Oswego county awoke to the necessity of prompt and effective action.  A military committee of eight persons was appointed, of which Elias Root was made chairman, the other members being D. C. Littlejohn, Henry Fitzhugh, Delos DeWolf, Willard Johnson, T. Kingsford, E. B. Talcott, D. G. Fort, R. K. Sanford, B. E. Bowen, A. C. Mattoon, and A: F Smith--all prominent and influential citizens.

   Recruiting began for a new regiment in the latter part of July, 1862.  The Board of Supervisors met to provide means to pay the expenses of raising a regiment, and on July 24 a great meeting was held in Doolittle Hall, at which Charles B. Sedgwick, of Syracuse, and Sanford E. Church spoke.  Cheney Ames was made commandant of the depot to be established in Oswego, and two recruiting offices were opened, at one of which Capt. William P. McKinley began recruiting a company, took and the name of Michael Rickett as the first volunteer in the regiment.  The supervisors adopted a resolution on the 24th to raise not more than $ 55,000 from which to pay each volunteer $50, while the State at the same time offered an equal amount.  Commissioners were appointed in each town and again military enthusiasm and activity prevailed.  So rapidly were volunteers secured that the regiment, numbered the 110th, was mustered in for three years on the 25th of August, with the following officers:

Colonel, DeWitt C. Littlejohn, Oswego; lieutenant-colonel, Clinton H. Sage Fulton; major, Charles Hamilton; adjutant, Harvey D. Talcott, Oswego; quartermaster, Warren D. Smith, Oswego; surgeon, Allen C. Livingston; Fulton; assistant surgeons, Tobias J. Green, Parish and Alfred Rice, Hannibal; chaplain, Edward Lord, Fulton; quartermaster-sergeant, F. G. Comstock, Albion; sergeant-major, B. F. Bailey, Oswego

Line Officers.--Co. A - Captain, Brainard M. Pratt, Fulton; first lieutenant, Valorus Randall, Fulton; second lieutenant, Almon A. Wood, Fulton
Co. B - Captain, Vinson L. Garrett, Albion; first lieutenant, Albert A. Fellows, Pulaski; second lieutenant, J. Ashpole, Pulaski
Co. C - Captain, O. B. Olmstead, Orwell; first lieutenant, Yates W. Newton, Sandy Creek; second lieutenant, A. F. Johnson, Redfield
Co. D - Captain, H. C. Devendorf, Hastings; first lieutenant, D. D. McKoon, Schroeppel; second lieutenant, W. S. Bradley, Schroeppel
Co. E - Captain, John Sawyer, Mexico; first lieutenant, Samuel Nichols, Mexico; Second lieutenant, Wm. A. Smith Palermo
Co. F - Captain, E. N. Boyd, Hannibal; first lieutenant, Isaac H. Peckham, Hannibal; second lieutenant, Thomas Hunter, Sterling, Cayuga county
Co. G - Captain, Wm. P. McKinley, Oswego; first lieutenant, E. Jerrett, Scriba; second lieutenant, A. B. Frey, Oswego
Co. H - Captain, John Stevenson, Oswego; first lieutenant, Charles A. Phillips, Oswego; second lieutenant, Wm. I. Rasmussen, Oswego
Co. I - Captain, James Doyle, Oswego; first lieutenant, Thomas Kehoe, Oswego; second lieutenant, E. P. Allen, Oswego
Co. K - Captain, H. D. Brown, Constantia; first lieutenant, C. Gardner; Parish, second lieutenant, N. A. Gardner, Amboy.

   The following list shows the number of men enlisted from the various towns in the county, viz.:  Albion, 48; Amboy, 21; Boylston, 15; Constantia, 5o; Granby, 25; Hannibal, 77; Hastings, 67; Mexico, 56; New Haven, 20; Orwell, 44; Oswego town, 43; City: First ward, 31; Second ward 23; Third ward, 53; Fourth ward, 4o; Parish, 29; Palermo, 33; Redfield, 15; Richland, 60; Schroeppel, 35; Sandy Creek, 24; Scriba, 55; Volney, 100; West Monroe, 11; Williamstown, 9.  Enlisted from Oneida count, 6; from Onondaga, 2; from Cayuga, 30; from Jefferson and Erie, l each; making a total of 1,025 men.

   This regiment left camp on the evening of August 25, 1862, and under escort of the Regulars from the fort, the Oswego Guards, German Light Guards, Washington Guards, Fremont Guards, and Captain McKinlock's company (already enlisted for the succeeding regiment the 147th), marched to the depot.  Business was suspended and more than 6,000 people assembled to witness the departure of the soldiers.  The regiment proceeded to Baltimore, where they remained in Camp Patterson about two months, and then embarked for Fortress Monroe, arriving on November 6.  Here they were assigned to the Department of the Gulf, for the expedition under command of General Banks.  Going by water to New Orleans, they were in camp a few weeks and then removed to Baton Rouge.  In March, 1863, they were ordered to Port Hudson, where they were present at the first bombardment of that place by Farragut's fleet.  The attack upon Port Hudson was suspended for a time, during which the 110th returned to New Orleans and went into camp opposite the city.  Soon afterward they joined the expedition under General Banks into the Bayou Teche country, and participated in an engagement at Camp Bisland.  After a camp of ten days on the Red River, the regiment returned to Port Hudson.  On the morning of May 27, 1863, the land forces took their positions and the siege of Port Hudson began.  On the 13th of June General Banks gave orders for a general assault on the following morning at three o'clock.  In the assaulting column four companies of the 110th, A, B, E, and I, took part, under command of Major Charles Hamilton.  The fight lasted eight hours and was desperately contested.  The 110th was under command of Col. C. H. Sage, and the six companies stationed on the west side captured a large number of prisoners; while the decimated ranks of the other four companies told a pathetic tale of their bravery.  At the surrender, July 9, 1863, the regiment were present.

   After the capitulation the 110th left Port Hudson, encamped a few days opposite New Orleans, and then embarked for Sabine Pass.  Afterward they joined General Banks's Red River expedition.  At the conclusion of this movement they returned to camp opposite New Orleans whence they proceeded to Fort Jefferson at the Dry Tortugas, where they remained on garrison duty, having in charge about 900 prisioners.  In August, 1865, the regiment left for home and was mustered out on the 25th of that month.

   Among the members of the 110th who were killed in action or who died of wounds, were Almon A. Wood, Co. E, first lieutenant, who died at Berwick Bay, La., May 26, 1863, from wounds received while in company of the rear guard near Franklin, La., May 25; John E. Brown, Co. E, killed near Port Hudson, La., June 14, 1863; Elias Spear, Co. E, died a prisoner at Port Hudson from wounds received June 14, 1863; William Johnson, Co. E, killed near Port Hudson June 14, 1863; Rolan H. Sweet, Co. E, killed at Vermilion Bayou November 11, 1863.  The following died at Tortugas: Hiram Van Auken, Co. F, March 7, 1864; Alfred Parmenter, Co. D, March 10,1864; Henry Weaver, Co. B, March 18, 1864; James Green, Co. D, March 20, 1864; Augustus Albro, Co. D, March 23, 1864; E. S. Evarts, Co. H, April 29, 1864; Chauncey Cummings, Co. F, July 18, 1864; Charles Byington, quartermaster-sergeant, August 16, 1864; G. M. Hoyt, Co. D, August 27, 1864; Henry Wilson, Co. A, August 28, 1864; Edwin Crosier, Co. E, November 25, 1864; Peter Ferguson, Co. A, December 14, 1864; Joseph Benway, Co. G, April 5. 1865; Robert Moot, Co. F, May 20, 1865.  On June 14,1863, Co. E, numbering thirty-six men, and ten members of Co. A, were detailed as a hand grenade party to charge on the batteries at Port Hudson in the rear of two lines of skirmishers.  At roll call on the morning of the 15th, Co. E reported sixteen killed, wounded, and missing.  After the surrender of Port Hudson on July 8, two who had been taken prisoners returned, leaving the report three killed and eleven wounded.

   The Soldiers' Relief Society was organized in Oswego city November 16, 1861, with Mrs. John E. Lyon, president; Mrs. Henry Fitzhugh vice-president; Miss H. W. Ludlow, secretary; Mrs. David Mannering treasurer.  This society accomplished a vast amount of good, and worked in harmony with all other efforts for the relief of the soldiers and their families.  In January, 1862, one hundred and fifty families were receiving aid in the city of Oswego weekly.  The city of Oswego elected a Republican mayor in the spring of 1862, and the county at large was in general sympathy with the efforts of the national government to maintain the Union.

   The One Hundred and Forty-seventh Regiment.- It has already been stated that one company had been recruited for the four regiment from the county before the 110th left for the front.  Recruiting for this regiment was energetically prosecuted.  The draft threatened for August 15, 1862, afterwards postponed to September 3, and again to the 15th, impelled the various towns and the city to redouble their efforts to escape the consequences and the opprobium of a draft.  Moreover, the president's call for 300,000 volunteers, August 4, to serve for nine months, gave opportunity for enlistments for a short period though very little was done under it in this State.  War meetings again became the order, and business was almost at a standstill.  Most of the stores closed during a part of the time each day at four o'clock, so that proprietors and employees could give their entire attention to recruiting.  The quota of the county was 2,348 under both calls.  On the 18th of August a most enthusiastic meeting was held at Doolittle Hall at which John C. Churchill spoke, and presented a sword to Col. C. C. Marsh, a native of Oswego, who had distinguished himself in the West under General Grant.  On the following day a great meeting was held in West Park, at which Dudley Farling and J. A. Hathway spoke.  It was here, that Simeon Bates touched the right chord when he arose and offered $ 10 each to the first ten men to enlist from the Fourth Ward; $ 10 to the second ten, until 100 men had enlisted calling for $ 1,000.  Another meeting was held on the following evening in the East Park.  The supervisors also met and adopted measures to secure requisite legislation to enable them to raise $ 67,400 with which to continue the payment of $ 50 to each volunteer.  During the month of August, D. C. Littlejohn went  into nearlv all the towns of the county, addressing meetings and exciting great enthusiasm.  The result was wholly gratifying, and what became the 147th regiment was filled without a draft and mustered into the service on the 23d of September, 1862.

   The following were the field-and staff of the 147th regiment:
Colonel, Andrew S. Warner; lieutenant-colonel: John G. Butler; adjutant, Dudley Farling; quartermaster, Benjamin F. Lewis, surgeon, A. S. Coe; assistant surgeons, John T. Stillman, S. G. Place; chaplain, Harvey E. Chapin
  Line Officers. - Co. A - Captain, John McKinlock; first lieutenant, George Hugunin; second lieutenant, Edward Greyware
  Co. B - Captain, George Harney; first lieutenant, Patrick Slattery; second lieutenant, A. Judson Dickison
  Co. C - Captain, Datus Woodward; first lieutenant, E. D. Parker; second lieutenant, William R. Potts
  Co. D - Captain, Alexander Hulett; first lieutenant, George A. Sisson; second lieutenant, W. P. Schenck
  Co. E - Captain, Elhanan Seely; first lieutenant, James Coey; second lieutenant, Orson J. Woodward
  Co. F - Captain, Cyrus V. Hartson; first lieutenant, Chauncey L. Gridley; second lieutenant Harvey Flint
  Co. G - Captain, Delos Gary; first lieutenant, Charles F. Robe; second lieutenant, Volney.J. Pierce
  Co. H - Captain, R. W. Slayton; first lieutenant Abram Conterman; second lieutenant, D. W. C. Matthews
  Co. I - Captain, Patrick Regan; first lieutenant, James A. McKinley; second lieutenant, Daniel McAssy
  Co. K - Captain, Nathanial A. Wright; first lieutenant, Franklin N. Hamlin; second lieutentant, Joseph Dempsey
Non-Commissioned Staff - Hospital steward, Charles K Paddock; sergeant-major, H. G. Lee; quartermaster-sergeant, Henry H. Mellen; commissary-sergeant, Alfred N. Beadle

   This regiment, comprising 837 enlisted men, left for the front September 27, via Elmira, Harrisburg and Baltimore, and arrived at Washington on the 3oth, where it went into Camp Chase, about two miles from the Long Bridge.  On the 3d of October they were ordered to Tenallytown, three miles north of Georgetown, where they remained nearly two months at work on the defenses.

   Here discontent arose over protracted work in the trenches; homesickness and fevers set in; and many were sent to hospital.  Harvey Flint, second lieutenant of Co. F, died of typhoid fever, and several officers were forced to go to the hospital.  November 28 the regiment joined the Army of the Potomac and marched to Port Tobacco, on the north bank of the Potomac, opposite Aquia Creek, arriving there December 1, and crossed the river the same night.  Here the regiment was brigaded with the 20th, 21st, and 22d New Jersey, and the 137th Pennsylvania Regiments.  This brigade was assigned to provost duty on the railroad from Aquia Creek to Falmouth, to guard the reception of supplies.

   On the 13th of December the 147th witnessed the battle of Fredericksburg, but did not take part in it.  In the first week of January, 1863, the brigade was transferred to the First Corps, under Major-General Reynolds, and First Division.  On the 30th of January, the regiment having meanwhile been persistently drilled, they joined Burnside's celebrated "mud march," which preceded his relief from command in the latter part of January, and the appointment of General Hooker in his place.

   During the months of February and March, 1863, the following extensive changes were made in the regiment •
  Colonel A. S. Warner, resigned February 4.  Lieutenant-Colonel J. G. Butler was commissioned colonel February 24, 1863. Major Francis C. Miller was commissioned lieutenant-colonel February 24. George Harney, captain Co. B, was commissioned major February 24
Co. A - Edward Greyware, second lieutenant, resigned January 8.  John F. Box, private, commissioned second lieutenant February 11.
Co. B - Patrick Slattery, first lieutenant, was commissioned captain, vice Harney promoted, March 12.  William J. Gillett, first sergeant, commissioned first lieutenant, vice Slattery promoted, March 24.
Co. C - Captain Datus Woodward, resigned February 4.  E.D. Parker, first lieutenant, was commissioned captain February 13.  Wm. R Potts, second lieutenant, commissioned first lieutenant, vice Parker promoted, February 13.  Henry H. Lyman, first sergeant, commissioned second lieutenant, vice Potts promoted.
Co. D - Captain Alexander Hulett resigned February 4.  George A. Sisson, first lieutenant, commissioned captain February 24.  W. P. Schenck: second lieutenant, commissioned first lieutenant February 24.  D.G. Vandusen, sergeant.major, commissioned second lieutenant February 24.
Co. E - Captain Elhanan C. Seely, resigned February 4.  James Coey, first lieutenant, commissioned captain February 24.  O. J. Woodward, second lieutenant, commissioned first lieutenant February 24.  S. J. Taylor, first sergeant, commissioned second lieutenant February 24.
Co. F - Captain Cyrus V. Hartson, resigned January 25.  Second Lieutenant Horace G. Lee, commissioned captain February 10.  Gilford D. Mace, first sergeant, commissioned first lieutenant February 24.  Charles B. Skinner, second sergeant. commissioned second lieutenant July 4.
Co. H. - First Lieutenant Conterman, resigned January 8.  D.C. Matthews, second lieutenant, commissioned February 10, first lieutenant.  Luther M. Hays, first sergeant, commissioned second lieutenant February 10.  First Lieutenant D. C. Matthews. resigned February 24.  L. M Hays commissioned first lieutenant March 24.  Cheney D. Barney, sergeant, commissioned second lieutenant March 25.

   Quartermaster Lewis, after a severe illness, was sent to hospital at Georgetown, and soon after was discharged on a surgeon’s certificate of disability.  Henry H. Mellen, quartermaster-sergeant, was commissioned quartermaster February 13.  Quartermaster Lewis had with heroic persistence, shared the fortunes of the regiment, against the earnest solicitations of his medical officer and warmest friends, through two or three attacks of illness, barely escaping with his life each time.  These various changes were necessitated largely on account of the decimation of the ranks by sickness and death, as indicated in the following lists given in Johnson’s History of Oswego County, p. 85:

   The following died in hospital in the northern defenses of Washington:
   Alfred Lukin, Co. A, private, November 21, 1862; Chas. A. Brown, Co. B, November 22, 1862; Amos D. Fuller, corporal, Co. D, November 2, 1862; Nathan Rowley, corporal Co. D, December 22, 1862; Franklin Lurce, private, Co. H, December 1l, 1862; Stewart Park, private, Co. H, November 12, 1862; Thomas Kane, private, Co. E, November 25, 1862; Edwin Robottom, private, Co. E, November 23, 1862; Hamilton M. Wilcox, Co. F, November 3, 1862; George Button, private, Co. E, December 31, 1862.

   The following died in hospital at Belle Plain and in general hospital during the winter of 1862-63, and to May 1, 1863:
  Thomas Harrington, Co. A, April 11, 1863; Andrus McChesney, Co A., February 26, 1863; Theodore Dolloway, Co. B, January 18, 1863; Wm. Delamater, Co. B, January 15, 1863; Joseph Pilow, Co. B, February 25, 1863; Wm. C. Spain, Co. C, March 19, 1863; Henry Miller, Co. C, March 5, 1863; Levinus Wait, Co. E; George Edmonds, Co. C, February 1, 1863; Geo. M. Havens, Co. C, March 7, 1863; John Place, January 9, 1863; Luke Potter, Co. C, February 12, 1863; Henry Pittsley, February 12, 1863; Wheaton Spink, Co. C, January 1, 1863; Justus Carey, Co. D, April 25, 1863; Darius T. Dexter, Co. D, March 10, 1863; Albert Clemens, Co. D. February 4, 1863; Barnard McOwen, Co. E, April, 1863; Joseph A. Upton, Co. E, April, 1863 Barton White, Co. E, April, 1863; Orville Wines, Co. H, April 21, 1863; Jas. Boddy, Co. I, December 23, 1862; Ephraim Darling. Co. H, January 10, 1863; Henry P. Green, Co. H, April 24, 1863; Wm. Haight, Co. H, February 17, 1863; Jas. Johnson, Co. H. January 10, 1863; Jas. K. P. Miller, Co. H, April 1, 1863; :Elisha Ozier, Co. H, January 19, 1863; Gilbert Jones, Co. G, February 5, 1863; John Moshiser, Co. G, March 13, 1863; John Warner, Co. G, April 8, 1863; Jos. F. Munger, Co. F, January 11, 1863; Henry Wing, Co. F, February 28, 1863; Jas. A. Scribner, Co. G, January 3, 1863; Jas. Forbes, Co. K, March 23, 1863; Timothy Ryan; Co. K, March 30, 1863; Daniel Whitney, Co. K, February 22, 1863; Amos Grosbeck Co. D, January 21, 1863; Alonzo Ellis, Co. E, February 12, 1863; James M. Geer, Co. E, January 22, 1863; William Lyons, Co. E, February 28, 1863; George W. Coon. Co. G, April 13, 1863; John H. Coon, Co. G, March, 1863.

   On the 3d of April, 1863, the 147th was transferred to the Second Brigade, under General Cutler.  The other regiments in the brigade were the 76th and 95th New York, the 56th Pennsylvania, and the 7th Indiana.

   On the 28th of April, 1863, the 147th started on the campaign which terminated with the battle of Chancellorsville, May 2-4.  This regiment was the first to cross the pontoon bridges after they were laid losing four or five killed and wounded.  On the 2d of May the First Corps was ordered to join Hooker at Chancellorsville, and the 147th arrived on the field in the morning of the 3d, in time for the fierce conflict.  The regiment remained on the field two days and fell back with the army, recrossing the river in the night, and went into camp about three miles below Falmouth.  Here sickness again became prevalent and fatal.  George A. Sisson, of Co. D, a brave officer, died from typhoid fever.  Colonel Butler was taken sick and sent home.  He did not return, and the regiment lost an efficient officer thereby.  Lieut. F.N. Hamlin, Co. K, was sick and sent to hospital and afterwards home.  The following died in hospitals in May and June, 1863; Charles H. McCarty, Co. C, from wounds received May 1; Wm. H. Robbins, from wounds received May 1; George A. Sisson, captain Co. D, May 13; Ira A. Sperry, corporal, June 22; David Stey, Co. D, June 11; Newton Ehle, Co. E, June; Gordon L Smith, Co. H, June 4; David Wines, Co. H, May 1; Thomas Dunn, Co. I, May 30; James L. Dodd, Co. H, June 7; Nathan B. Chase, Co. C, June 1; Silas Halleck, Co. G.

   On the 12th of June, 1863, the 147th began its march in the memorable Gettysburg campaign, reaching Bealton Station, on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad on the 14th, whence the many sick were sent Alexandria.  They remained at Centreville from the 15th to the 18th for needed rest.  The Potomac was crossed on the 26th, and on the 28th, Frederick was reached after a weary march.  The next day the regiment guarded the wagon train to Emmetsburg, twenty-six miles away, and so approached the field where was to be fought the greatest battle of modern times.  June 29 the First Corps marched to Marsh Creek and went into camp about four miles from the battlefield.  On the 30th the regiment was mustered for pay, and early in the morning of July 1 the long roll was sounded for the beginning of the three days’ conflict.  Of this great struggle we can only briefly note the prominent events with which the 147th was immediately connected.  The First Division was led by General Reynolds in person, and formed on Seminary Ridge in a grove, whence it proceeded towards the enemy to a parallel ridge, through which was a deep railroad cut.  This cut divided the brigade in two parts, the 147th and the 76th on the right.  Here the Oswego county soldiers suffered severe loss, General Reynolds being filled in the first of the action.  The enemy charged through the railroad cut, and the order came for the brigade to fall back.  The order reached the 76th, but not the 147th, as Lieutenant-Colonel Miller to whom it was given, was wounded and could not transfer it to his successor, Major Harney.  Says Johnson's History of Oswego County; “Major Harney bravely held the regiment in position, against overwhelming numbers, until Captain Ellsworth, of Wadsworth's staff, seeing its perilous position, with great personal bravery hastened forward and ordered Major Harney to fall back.  The enemy at this time held the railroad cut, partially intercepting the regiment's retreat.  It was none too soon to save the regiment from total annihilation or capture.  It had already lost full one-half of its numbers in killed and wounded.”  The color-bearer, Sergeant Hinchcliff; had been shot and had fallen upon his flag.  Sergeant Wybourn, Co. I, volunteered to secure it, and did so amid a storm of bullets; in the heroic act he was slightly wounded.  The regiment rallied under cover of Seminary Hill, but at no time that day could it afterward muster more than seventy or eighty muskets.  It returned to near its former position after the line was reestablished, after which the scene of action changed to the northwest of Gettysburg, where about noon the 147th was again engaged and suffered further casualties, several of its officers being wounded.  The day, as is well known, closed with the Union forces in retreat.  They rallied towards night on Culp's Hill.

   Following is a list of the killed and a part of the wounded on this bloody day:
   The following officers were killed:  Gilford D. Mace, first lieutenant Co. F; D. G. Vandusen, second lieutenant Co. D; Daniel McAssy, second lieutenant Co. I
   The officers wounded were as follows: F. C. Miller; lieutenant-colonel, severely George Harney, major, slightly; Captains P. Slattery, Co. B, severely; E. D. Parker; Co. C, slightly; D. Gary, Co. G, severely; Nathaniel Wright, severely; Lieutenants Wm. R. Potts, Co. C., severely; Wm. P. Schenck, Co. D, mortally; and Joseph Dempsey Co. K, slightly.
   The following is a list of non-commissioned officers and men killed in this battle; July 1 1863
Co. A - Charles Cole, Alexander Leroy, Joseph Lemain, Oliver Legault, Samuel Lesarge, Walter B. Thorp, Frank Virginia.
Co. B - Corporals Conrad Warner, Wm. Martin, Michael Doyle, David Hayden, Delos W. Field; Privates Albert P. Hall, Jas. Mahoney Henry Miller, Stephen Planter, James Sears
Co. C - Allen Morgan corporal, died July 12, from wounds received July 1; Jos, W. Burr, Franklin Clary, Elias Hannis, died July 15, from wounds received July 1; Horace B. Hall, Degrass Hannis, Harlow Mills, Morgan L. Allen.
Co. D - Albert Bartley, John S. Butler, Joseph W. Diston
Co. E - Samuel Carpenter, Albert D. Potter, Seth Potter, Simeon Potter, George W. Tryon., David Welch, John Williams
Co. F - Judson Dolbear, Frank N. Halsey, Henry B. Mayo, Alvin P. Burch, Johnston. B. Church, Henry F. Morton, Asa Pettingill, Chauncey Snell, Asa Westcott
Co. G - Peter Shultz, sergeant; Fred. Rife, Edwin Aylsworth, Peter Zeigler, Joseph Stoutenger, Louis Aingen, Frederick Ershman, John Mosheiser, Alex. McAmbly, David Rau, Hiram Stowell
Co. I - Martin David, Deglin McGrath, Dennis McGrath, Richard Judson
Co. K - Jas. Hinchcliff, color-sergeant; Theophilus R. Barberick, Thomas Banister, James Hudson, sergeant
   The losses of the 147th were over forty killed; two hundred wounded; and about thirty missing.

   In his official report General Doubleday used language that reflects honorably upon the soldiers from Oswego county, as will be seen in the following extract:
   “I concur with the division commanders in their estimate of the good conduct and valuable services of the following-named officers and men: General Cutler commanding the Second Brigade, says:  "Colonel Hofman, 56th Pennsylvania Volunteers, Major Harney, 147th New York Volunteers, Captain Cook, 76th New York Volunteers, deserve special mention for gallantry and coolness; Colonel Fowler, 14th Brooklyn, for charging the enemy at the railroad cut, in connection with the 95th New York Volunteers and 6th Wisconsin, by which the 147th New York Volunteers was released from its perilous position; Lieutenant-Colonel Miller, commanding the 147th .New York Volunteers, was severely wounded at the head of his regiment on the 1st instant…….Major Harney, of the 147th New York Volunteers and Major Pye, of the 95th New York Volunteers, on assuming command of their respective regiments, did all that brave men and good soldiers could do, and deserve well for their services.  Sergeant H. H. Hubbard, Co. D, 147th New York Volunteers, was in command of the provost guard of the brigade, eighteen strong, on the morning of the 1st instant.  He formed the guard on the right of the 76th New York Volunteers, and fought until the battle was over, losing twelve of his men.  The color sergeant of the 147th New York Volunteers was killed, and the colors 
were caught by Sergt. Wm. A. Wybourn, of. Co. I, 147th New York Volunteers and brought off the battlefield by him, notwithstanding he was himself severely wounded.”

   On the second day of the battle the 147th were posted on Culp's Hill, and were not engaged until towards evening, when they made a charge upon the enemy, who had gained some rude breastworks on the summit of the hill, and drove him out, restoring the lines.
   On the 3d the 147th continued with the force that held Culp's Hill, one of the most important points along the line, and on which the enemy repeatedly charged during the night of the 2d and the day of the 3d, necessitating constant action.  An incident illustrating the desperate valor of the enemy is thus related:

   In a charge more determined and vigorous than usual, after persistent fighting, their line broke; a number of their men took refuge behind a large rock in front of the 147th, but it did not wholly protect them from a flank fire from both sides.  They were gradually being picked off by our men.  They began to wave handkerchiefs and give other tokens of surrender.  This was seen by an officer on General Ewell’s staff at a distance from our right.  He immediately started to ride across our front to arrest it.  He and his orderlies were immediately riddled by bullets.1

   The Union army lay on their arms all night and in the morning of the 4th news was brought that the enemy had withdrawn.  The battle of Gettysburg is considered by many as the decisive event of the war -- the turning point where began the downfall of the Confederacy.  The losses of the 147th during the 2d and 3d were large, considering their meager numbers.  The following were killed on these two days:  John Hart, Co. C; Sergt. Joseph Stuyvesant, Co. C;  Sylvester Taylor, second lieutenant Co. E; Sylvester Quick, Co. K; Francis Dodd, Co. H, died July 3, from typhoid fever, at Fairfax Seminary.  Lieut. John F. Box, Company A, was wounded and lost an arm.

   The time from July 6, after the battle of Gettysburg, to July 23, was occupied by the long march to Warrenton, Va.  While at Keedysville, on the 21st a detail of three, Lieut.-Col. Miller, Capt. James Coey, and Lieutenant Gillett, was sent to Elmira for recruits to fill the depleted ranks of the regiment.  The First Corps left Warrenton for Warrenton Junction July 25, crossed the Rappahannock August 2, and after some skirmishing, lay at Rappahannock Station until September 16; thence marched to near Culpepper and remained until September 24, and thence to Raccoon Ford on the Rapidan.  October 6, 142 recruits were received in the regiment and eighty more on the 9th.  On the 10th the regiment marched to Morgan's Ford, and returned to near Culpepper in the night.  The First Corps formed a part of the retreating army to Centerville and the entire Army of the Potomac took shelter again behind Bull Run.  On the 16th of October the 147th received 100 more recruits.  The following promotions took place about this time: Sergt. H. H. Hubbard, to second lieutenant for gallant conduct at Gettysburg; James A. McKinley, first lieutenant, to captain; Volney J. Pierce, first lieutenant Co. G, to captain Co. D; Joseph Dempsey, second lieutenant Co. K, to first lieutenant; Edward Semler, sergeant Co. E, to second lieutenant, vice Lieutenant Taylor killed at Gettysburg; Sidney Gaylord, sergeant Co. E, to second lieutenant, James W. Kingsley. sergeant Co. K, to second lieutenant Co. K.

   The following died in hospitals:  George W. Box, Co. C, September 22, 1863; Charles H. Backus, sergeant Co. D; Levi M. Wallace, Co. E August 18, 1863; William Edmonds, Co. F, September 17, 1863; Horace Cheever, Co. F, Asa Westcott, Co. F, July 25, 1863.

   October 19, 1863, the 147th and the First Corps advanced through Thoroughfare Gap, and on the 9th of November crossed the Rappahannock, driving the enemy out of their comfortable quarters and across the Rapidan.  They were followed by the Union forces across the latter river, the First Corps crossing at Germania Ford.  On the 28th•they marched to Robinson's Tavern, in the Wilderness.  There the First Corps charged the enemy and drove them across Mine Run, where it was expected a battle, would follow; but the weather had meanwhile become intensely cold, and on the 1st of December the army fell back.  About January 1, 1864, the First Corps moved to Culpepper and went into winter quarters, where, in an excellent camp, the health of the 147th immediately improved, the hospitals were emptied, and the winter passed in comparative enjoyment.  During the winter the following promotions took place:
   Lieutenant Colonel F. C. Miller promoted to colonel, November 24, 1863, vice J. G. Butler, discharged on surgeon’s certificate of disability; Major G. Harney, promoted lieutenant-colonel, December 15, vice F. C. Miller, promoted; D. Farling, adjutant, promoted major, December 15, vice G. Harney, promoted; H. H. Lyman, second lieutenant, Co C, promoted adjutant, January 12, 1864, vice Farling, promoted; Joseph Dempsey, first lieutenant, Co. K, promoted captain, ,January 12, 1864; George Hugunin, first.lieutenant Co. A, promoted captain Co. B; Henry H. Hubbard, second lieutenant Co. D, promoted first lieutenant Co D, December 24, 1863; again promoted captain, March 24, 1864; Alexander R. Penfield, promoted to captain December 24. 1863; Nathaniel Wright, restored, November 30, 1863; William J. Gillett promoted to captain .March 30, 1864; James W. Kingsley, second lieutenant Co. K, promoted first lieutenant March 30, 1864; James Brown, sergeant Co. B, promoted first lieutenant July 27, 1863; Byron Parkhurst, sergeant Co. G, promoted first lieutenant Co. G December 24, 1863; Alexander King, sergeant Co. D, promoted second lieutenant. Co. D, December 24. 1863; again promoted to first lieutenant, Co. D, April 14 1864; Cheney D. Barney, second lieutenant Co. H, promoted first lieutenant Co. H, February 8, 1864; William A. Wybourn, second lieutenant promoted first lieutenant, January 23 1864; Lansing Bristol, sergeant Co. D, promoted second lieutenant Co D, April 14, 1864; Franklin N. Hamlin, restored first lieutenant Co. K, December 24, 1863: Edwin M. Sperry, sergeant Co. C, promoted second lieutenant Co. C February 8, 1864; Clark H. Norton, sergeant Co. H, promoted second lieutenant Co. H, December 7 1863 John Berry, of the Fourteenth Brooklyn, promoted second lieutenant Co. A, November 24, 1863; William Kinney, sergeant Co. K, promoted second lieutenant, January 11, 1864; Joel A. Baker, sergeant-major, promoted second lieutenant Co. G, April 19, 1864.
   Following is a list of those who were killed in battle or died in hospital from Oct. 16, 1863, to May 4, 1864, of the original organization of the regiment:
   Alpheus Austin, Co. A, captured at Haymarket, Virginia, October 19, died in Andersonville prison; James Guard, Co. A, died November 3, 1863, at David’s Island, New York; Israel Barber, died November 8, 1863 of typhoid fever; Daniel Wilson, Co. B, December 23, 1863; Lucien Gibbs, Co. B, November, 1863, Samuel Delano, died at Richmond, Virginia, December 2, 1863; Jonathan Ween, Co. B, December 10, 1863; Josiah Farrington, Co. F, November 24, 1863; Ossian Howe, Co. F, December 15, 1863; Jacob Snider, Co. F, date unknown; Robert N. Baker, corporal Co. G, November 20, 1863; Decatur Russell, Co. H, November 28, 1863; Isaac Gosline, Co. H, November 27, 1863; John B. McCord, Co. H, February 15, 1864; Elam Seymour, Co. F, January 30, 1864; Benjamin I. Stone, December 20, 1863; Levi Decker, Co. I, November 23, 1863; Nathaniel Covert, Co. K., January 10, 1864; Andrew Craig, Co. K, December 8, 1863; John Daly, Co. K, January 18, 1864; John W. Elliott, Co. K, November 17, 1863; Nicholas McCoy, Co. K, January 8, 1864; Daniel Sharp, Co. K, January 2, 1864; John Maggerly, Co. D, January 31, 1864, Stephen L. Lacy, Co. E, March 10, 1864; William Topher, February 25, 1864.

   In the spring of 1864 before the opening of the campaign, a re-organization was effected in the army, by which the First Corps, containing the 147th was merged in the Fifth Corps, under Major-General Warren, and many other similar changes were made.  General Grant had taken command of all the armies, and on March 29 he reviewed the Army of the Potomac.  On the 5th of May began the campaign of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania and Petersburg.  On that day the Fifth Corps met the enemy near Mine Run on the Rapidan, where the whole of the Pennsylvania Reserves were captured, and the 147th found themselves in a cul de sac, from which they with difficulty escaped.  Many were taken prisoners; Colonel Miller was severely wounded and captured, and Adjutant Lyman was among the prisoners taken.  In the effort to rally the brigade the loss in the 147th in killed, wounded and prisoners was large.  During the succeeding two days’ fighting, the regiment was often actively engaged, and the First Division in the two days’ fight lost over half its number.  The battle was mostly fought in dense thickets, and in that respect was almost unique in the annals of war.  After the battle the Union army crossed the fords, and on the morning of the 7th Grant started with his forces, and about 20,000 wounded in ambulances and wagons, for Spottsylvania, fifteen miles distant.  But Lee reached there first and fortified his position.  On the morning of the 8th the 147th repelled an attack of the enemy, with considerable loss; and again on the 10th was engaged until it ran out of ammunition, when it was relieved.  On the 12th the regiment went on the skirmish line at 5 A. M., without breakfast; charged through a thicket to the enemy's works; but was repulsed.  The regiment then went about five miles to the left to engage in one of the most fiercely contested battles of the war.

   Five desperate attacks were made by Lee's army upon the Union lines, and were repulsed with slaughter each time.  Part of the Fifth Corps, containing the 147th, was moved up in the evening to aid in holding our position.  Every man was given 250 rounds of ammunition and ordered to keep up a constant fire during the night.  In the morning the enemy had disappeared.  On the 11th of May the brave General Rice had his thigh shattered by a bullet, and died in the evening, after its amputation.  Lieutenant-Colonel Harney was slightly wounded the same afternoon.  In these several days of fighting and from sickness in the Wilderness and at Spottsylvania the losses of the 147th were as follows:
Co. A - Arnold Brown, Benoni Baker, David Bird, George Bull, William Backus, Job G. Campbell, Abram I. White, John E Peer May 8; Drisdon Fournier, wounded May 5, died August 16.
Co. B - May 5, Bentley H. Throop; Simon Barbo, May 12. May 5, wounded Eugene Burlingame, died July 2 1864.  May 5, William Cullen, Allen S. Vorce 
Co. C - May 5, Ransom Guinness, Albert Eaton
Co. D - Thomas Murphy, corporal, May 8; William Horsford, May 12; John O. Hadley
Co. E - Burr B. Lathrop, May 5; William Castor, May 5; Roland T Rogers, May 10; Charles Brownell
Co. F - James Brown, first, lieutenant, died July 1, 1864, from wounds received May 10, 1864, at Spottsylvania
Co. G - May 5, William S. Herrick; May 5, William Harrison; May 5, Albert June; George W. Snell, May 10
Co. K - Franklin N Hamlin, first lieutenant, died of wounds received May ;5 1864; Joseph Walker, May 5; Joseph Ballard, Silas E. Parsons, Daniel Vanderwalker, William Whitehead, Abram M. Wiburn, Michael Walkenblock

   The Fifth Corps now marched to the North Anna River, reaching it May 24, and from that date until July 19 was often under fire – at the North Anna; Bethesda Church; and finally acted as train guard on the march to the James River.  The battle of Cold Harbor was fought June 3, but this regiment was not engaged.  The following were killed in battle or died in hospital from May 22, to June 19:
William Upcraft, Co. A, killed June l; Christian Field, Co. B, killed at North Anna, May 25; Patrick O'Conner, Co. B, wounded May 25, died June 14; Orange Beardsley, Co. C, killed May 24; Henry Foster, Co. C, at the battle of Petersburg; Charles Gurnsey, Co. C; June 18, at the battle of Petersburg; Herbert Gilbert, Co. C, June 17; Philip Stevens, Co. C, June 18; John Fitzgerald, Co. D, killed at the battle of Bethesda Church, June 2; Sidney C. Gaylord, second lieutenant Co, E, killed June 18; John L. Bayne, Co, E, June 18; Lewellen Laird, Co. E, wounded June 18, died June 24; David S. Rice, Co. F, June 18; Edwin Marshall, Co. G, June 18; John McMurray, Co. G, June 19; Thomas Seagraves, Co. G, June 19; Wilber H. Wentworth, Col G, June 18; Atwell Winchester, Co. H, June 19; James A. Castle, Co. H, June 10; Thos. I. Wright, Co. H, May 28, at Andersonville, Ga; John Mitchell, Co, I, died from wounds received June 18; John Daly, Co. K, June 18; Samuel Morey and John S. Riley, Co. K, June 18; Daniel Sanders, Co. K, May 25; Franklin B. Woodruff, Co K, wounded June 2, died June 11.

   In the operations around Petersburg in the fall of 1864 and spring of 1865 the Fifth Corps performed important service.  On the 18th of August they moved to the left and captured the Weldon Railroad at the Yellow House, and in the afternoon advanced a skirmish line toward Petersburg.  The 147th lost several in killed and wounded.  The lines were slowly contracting around the doomed city, and in September another feint was made across the James River, and the Fifth Corps made an attack on the enemy's line, capturing two forts recently built.  About the last of October the Second, Fifth, and Ninth Corps advanced three miles to the left to get possession of the Southside Railroad, the last line of communication leading to Petersburg; excepting the road connecting Petersburg with Richmond.  Here occurred a battle in which the 147th was actively engaged and suffered the great loss by capture of Lieutenant-Colonel Harney.  By his prompt and efficient action he had saved the regiment in an emergency from capture, and doubtless from great loss, and it was not known whether he was killed or captured, until his appearance after the surrender of Lee.  In December the Fifth Corps was ordered on an extensive raid to the North Carolina line to destroy the Weldon Railroad.  Twenty-five miles of this road were destroyed.
   Upon the return of the regiment they went into winter quarters; and little was done except to strengthen the lines, until February 6, 1865.

   The following promotions took place during the last year of the war:  James Coey was promoted to the lieutenant colonelcy, November 15, 1864; Alexander Penfield was promoted to the majority, November 15, 1864.
   The following were made captains: William J. Gillett, Byron Parkurst, Henry H. Hubbard, William A. Wybourn, Alexander Ring.  Alfred N. Beadle was made quartermaster.

   The following were made first lieutenants:  Patrick J. Brown, James W. Kingsley, Richard Esmond, John N. Beadle, Frank P. Benks, A. Judson Dickison, Lansing Bristol, Samuel S. Conde, Edward M. Sperry.
   The following were made second lieutenants: John S. McCoy, William Sullivan, William Boyce, Joseph W. Emblem, and Sidney G. Cook.

   On the 5th of February, 1865, the Fifth Corps broke camp and marched to near Dinwiddie Court House, camping for the night, and next day proceeded to the crossing at Hatcher's Run.  Here was fought the bloody battle of Hatcher's Run in which the regiment and Fifth Corps lost heavily.  Lieutenant-Colonel Coey, in command of the regiment, was shot in the face.  Lieutenant Wybourn lost a leg; Lieutenant Bristol was killed, and Lieutenant Berry was captured; Capt. Joseph Dempsey was wounded in the arm, and General Morrow was shot in the side.  On the 8th the regiment returned to its old quarters for the remainder of the winter.

   Following is a list of those who were killed or died in hospital in the regiment from June 19, 1864, to the close of the war:
Co. B - John S. Kippen, corporal, killed at, battle of Hatchet's Run, February 6, 1865; Wilson Sanders, July 8, 1864, typhoid fever, Christopher Rising, July 18, in hospital
Co. C - Charles A. Brown, killed November 24, 1864; Albert Fuller, September 1, 1864, died in hospital; L. Lawrence, killed February 5, 1865; William Minor, August 11, 1864, died in hospital; Ansel Orr, died in hospital; Henry Smith, died in hospital. 
Co. D - Edw. Topping, died May 11, 1865, of small-pox; Luther Clark, wounded April 1, 1865, at Five Forks, died April 19; William Cline, died in hospital September 25, 1864; Samuel Fessenden, wounded April 1, died April 10, 1865; James Nolan, died at home, August 20, 1864; Asa Radick, killed February 6, 1865.
Co. E - Alfred S. Nichols, killed April 1, 1865, at Five Forks.
Co. F - James Brown, first lieutenant, died July 1, 1864, from wounds received at SpottsyIvania.
Co. G - Daniel Densmore, died October 10, 1864, of wounds received May 5, 1864; Sylvanus E. Barker, killed at the battle of Gravelly Run; Edward Damm, killed in action August 18, 1864; William Knight, killed in action August 19, 1864; Andrew Morrison, killed at the battle of Gravelly Run, March 3l, 1865; Charles Brown missing in action October 1, 1864; John F. Kelley, killed October 1, 1864.
Co. H - Alamander Plumb, killed June 22, 1864; William H. Morse, died August 30, 1864, in hospital; Daniel A. Wheeler, died August 23, 1864
Co. I - Horace Chapin, killed June 25, 1864; John Mitchell, killed June 20, l864; Richard Murray, killed July 16, 1864.
Co. K - Lansing Bristol, first lieutenant, killed February 6, 1865; Richard McGraw, killed August, 19, 1864, at the battle of the Weldon Railroad; William Fitzpatrick killed August 19, 1864; Florin Hess, killed August 21, 1864; John F. Roberts, died August 13, 1864, of wounds received May 5, 1864; Richard White: killed June 25, 1864; Theodore Whitlock, killed February 6, 1865.

   On the morning of March 29, 1865, the Fifth Corps broke camp for its last campaign.  It was joined with Sheridan's command.  Near sunset of the first day the enemy was encountered by the Fifth Corps and a sharp engagement followed.  The 147th had, on February 6, lost its field and staff officers and the command was given to Colonel Daily.  In a drenching rain which continued till the 31st, the Fifth Corps endeavored to get possession of the White Oak road and join its left with Sheridan's cavalry.  On the morning of the 31st the enemy massed heavily in front of the corps and made a furious attack, in which the loss of the 147 was severe.  On the night of the 31st two divisions of the Fifth Corps advanced to join Sheridan, but the whole corps did not get into position until 4 P. M., by which hour the enemy had partially fallen back.  The corps was formed to swing around and intercept the enemy's retreat, which it did and captured about 5,000 prisoners.  The Confederates were hotly pursued and their general demoralization quickly followed.  After the battle of Five Forks the pursuit was continued, and no rest was given the retreating enemy until Appomattox was reached.  On the night of April 2, Lee evacuated Richmond and the Confederacy fell.  The Fifth Corps, now under command of General Griffin, pursued the right flank, with the Second Corps in the immediate rear.  The pursuit continued through the 8th and until the morning of the 9th, when the Fifth Corps cut off further retreat of the enemy at Appomattox.  Here, hemmed in on three sides, with the gallant Fifth Corps in front, the whole rebel army in full view, Lee made overtures for the surrender which followed.

   The remainder of the history of this gallant regiment is soon told.  They marched by easy stages to Richmond, and thence in May to the southern defenses of Washington.  On its way from Appomattox Court House the regiment was joined by Lieutenant-Colonel Harney, Colonel Miller and Adjutant Lyman, who had been liberated from rebel prisons.  The regiment was mustered out June 7, 1865, and started for home the next day, reaching Oswego on the 7th of July, having remained some days in Syracuse.  Out of the 837 enlisted men who left Oswego September 27, 1862, only 147 returned, and several of these were crippled.  The ranks of the regiment had been several times filled during its term of service, and what were left of these recruits were transferred to other regiments.  Nearly 2,300 names were on the entire muster rolls of the regiment.

   The following members of the 147th died in rebel prisons:
Co. A - Thomas Barnes, October 4, 1864; Theodore Elliott, September 16, 1864; Moses Shaw, September 10, 1864; Miles Morgan, September 1, 1864; Wm. Campbell, August 31, 1864; Orrin Kimberly, July 13, 1864; John Green, August 26, 1864; Robert Hyde, September 14, 1864.
Co. B - Joseph B. Clyens, August 17, 1864; Jacob F. Goodbred, August 28, 1864; Gilbert Sherwood, August 4, 1864, George Walling, August 22, 1864; Francis G. Defendorf, July 13, 1864; Matthew Devine, July 12, 1864; John Garner, July 22, 1864
Co. C - Peter Douglass, October 5, 1864; Lorenzo W. Horton, Morgan L. Allen, jr.
Co. D - Henry Broder, August 26, 1864; James C. Eldred, July 19, 1864; Edgar A. Stratton, October 10, 1864; William Cline, September 25, 1864; Theo. W. H. Hawley, October 11, 1864
Co. E - John Chambers, August 29, 1864; Reuben Ellis, August 24, 1864; Wm. Haggerty, August 26. 1864; Theo. Smith, August 24 1864; Ezra C. Jones, October 12, 1864; James Kenny, September 10, 1864; David Smiley, October 9, 1864; Jehiel Weed, at Salisbury, North Carolina, November 29, 1864; George Yerdon, at Salisbury, North Carolina, November 29, 1864.
Co. F - Leonard A. Freeman, date and place unknown; Burr B. Lathrop, Florence, South Carolina; Frederick Shultz, August 23, 1864, at Andersonville, Georgia; Wm. O. Daniels, sergeant, November, 1864, at Richmond. Virginia; Ansel Gannon, September 12, 1864, at Andersonville, Georgia; Charles S. Little, September 20, 1864; A. B. Randall, September 20, 1864; Michael Trainer, September 12, 1864, Andersonville, Georgia; Waldo Pouchin, died, after exchange, at Annapolis; Wm. W. Wood, March 16, 1865, Florence, South Carolina
Co. G. - Harvey D. Merritt, August 18, 1864, Andersonville, Georgia; Cornelius Cramb, date unknown; George Keiser, September 15, 1864; John Thompson, date unknown; Isaac Washington, August 18, 1864; John Wetherby, December 1. 1864, Salisbury, North Carolina;. John Miller, date unknown; John Rigby, December 10, 1864; Garret S. Ayres, date unknown.
Co. H - Sanford Alsavor, died in Florence, South Carolina; John Granger, July 10, 1864, at Andersonville, Georgia; David H. Johnson, December 29, 1864, after exchange at Annapolis; Thomas Wright, May 28, 1864; Samuel Bowen, July 20, 1864, Andersonville, Georgia; Wesley Brock, September 18, 1864; James A. Castle, June 10, 1864; Noah L. Myers, August 7, 1864; James Spoor, July 18, 1864; 
Co. I - John Dooley, after exchange, at Annapolis; Griggs Holbrook, August 22,1864; Joseph Lemoreaux, August 21, 1864; Elijah Chappel October 12, 1864, at Andersonville; John H. Leach, September 11, 1864
Co. K - Silas B. Taylor, September 29, 1864, Andersonville, Georgia; Jabez E. Spaulding, Co. E, date unknown; Chas. Jennings, date unknown.

   The One Hundred and Eighty-Fourth Regiment.-- This regiment was constituted of about 200 men from Madison and Cayuga counties, and the remainder from Oswego county.  Over 1,400 volunteers were recruited for it, and it was authorized by Governor Seymour upon personal application of Elias Root, of Oswego.  It was generally felt in the summer and autumn of 1864 that, if one more determined effort was made and the ranks of the armies were kept at the maximum, the rebellion would soon be crushed.  To aid in this work, W. G. Robinson and William I. Preston held a series of war meetings throughout the county, assisted by D. G. Fort, Cheney Ames, A. B. Getty, Henry Fitzhugh, and A. Van Dyck.  The hopes that had sometimes flagged and military enthusiasm that had waned were rekindled and recruiting went on rapidly.  The regiment was mustered into the service during the months of August and September, 1864.  

Following is a list of the regimental and line officers:
Colonel, Wardwell G. Robinson; lieutenant-colonel, William P. McKinley; major, W. D. Ferguson; adjutant, Howard M. Smith; quartermaster, John Dunn, jr.; surgeon, Tobias J. Green; assistant surgeon, T. Y. Kinnie; chaplain, Jacob Post
Co. A - Captain, Joel S. Palmer; first lieutenant, C. P. Strong; second lieutenant, M. L. Branch
Co. B - Captain, W. S. Morse; first lieutenant, J. N. Root; second lieutenant, C. H. Pavey
Co. C - Captain, J. W. Parkhurst; first lieutenant, George A. Leonard; second lieutenant, Daniel Bothwell
Co. D - Captain, S. R. Town; first lieutenant, Augustus Phillips; second lieutenant, Joel H. Warn.
Co. E - Captain, John Sheridan; first lieutenant, J. M. Francis; second lieutenant, J. H Loomis
Co. F - Captain, Wm. Dickinson; first lieutenant, I. W. Darrow; second lieutenant, S. H. Brown
Co. G - Captain, J. T. Outerson; first lieutenant, J. H. Grant; second lieutenant, T. W. Smith
Co. H - Captain, H. W. Ramsey; first lieutenant, G. W. Woodin; second lieutenant, T. M. Watkins
Co. I - Captain, George Wetmore; first lieutenant, E. F. Morris; second lieutenant, John H. Gilman
Co. K - Captain, S. Scriber; first lieutenant, M. G. McCoon; second lieutenant, Jerome H. Coe.

   Going into service so late in the war, the history of this regiment is brief.  It left Elmira for the front in September, and proceeded to City Point via Washington, but later went into camp about two miles from Bermuda Hundred.  It should be stated that four of the companies left Elmira September 14, in advance of the remainder of the regiment; they were A, B, D, and F.  The active history of the regiment is almost wholly confined to the records of these companies, and they did not rejoin the main body until just previous to their discharge.  On the 23d of September they marched for Winchester, halting four days at Harper's Ferry whence they guarded a provision train to Harrisburg.  They participated in the operations of General Sheridan in the valley of the Shenandoah, marching 104 miles in three days, and burning and destroying property.  They were subsequently ordered to Martinsburg, and thence again up the valley to Cedar Creek.  Early in the morning of October 19 orders came to fall into line immediately, and the battle of Cedar Creek followed.  At the close of the engagement the regiment camped on the ground they had left in the morning, with their ranks lessened by a list of sixteen killed (among them Lieutenant Phillips), and forty wounded.  The four companies were later ordered to Winchester, where, in works known as Camp Russell, they remained about four weeks, when they were ordered to City Point, and thence to Harrison's Landing, and there joined the remainder of the regiment, where it had been in comfortable quarters meanwhile.  The entire regiment remained here several months, Colonel Robinson acting as post commandant and in charge of the separate brigade in garrison at Harrison's Landing, Forts Pocahontas and Powhatan, and Major Ferguson as provost marshal.  Later Colonel Robinson with the regiment was ordered to City Point, and remained there until the 30th of June, 1865, when he received orders to embark the regiment, which was done on two steamers, by which they reached Baltimore on the 1st of July.  Thence on the following day they were sent to Elmira.  The regiment was subsequently paid off and mustered out at Syracuse.

   Besides the foregoing regular organizations, Oswego county sent several companies in different regiments, and many volunteers in squads or individually into numerous other organizations.  Of these, two companies, A and B, commanded respectively by Captains Cyrus and Simeon Church, were raised in this county for the 12th cavalry, (“Third Ira Harris Guard”), which was mustered in between November 10, 1862 and September 25, 1863.  The regiment was in camp on Staten Island to March, 1863, and after breaking camp March 8, embarked for Newbern, and remained there during the war, in the performance of much active service.  In an action near Tarboro, the Oswego companies met the enemy and Capt. Cyrus Church was killed in a charge at the head of his company.  Lieutenant Hubbard was wounded and taken prisoner, and was subsequently killed in March, 1865.  Ephraim Mosier, second lieutenant of Co. A, was taken prisoner and died in Charleston.  The two companies lost twenty men in this charge.  Two companies of a detachment on scouting duty at the battle of Plymouth, April 20, 1864 were all taken prisoners, and eighty-five men were sent to Andersonville, where most of them perished.  Among the number captured was Lieut. Alonzo Cooper, now living in Oswego.  The regiment was mustered out in July, 1865.

   A battery of the First Light Artillery was recruited in Oswego county, the regiment being mustered in between August 30 and November 19, 1861.  The battery proceeded to Elmira and thence, about November 1, to Washington.  The term of service of the regiment ended June•16, 1865, during which it performed the duties, assigned to it with honor.  Early in May, 1862, while a portion of the army under General Hooker was engaged, this was one of the artillery organizations that opened the battle.  While forming for the purpose a number of the Oswego battery were wounded, among them Lieutenants C. P. Aiken and H. P. Pike.  After this battle the regiment camped near Williamsburg.  Near Petersburg, Va., Lieut. Albert N. Ames, son of Cheney Ames, of Oswego was killed by sharpshooters, September 26, 1864.  The list of engagements in which this regiment participated was as follows: Yorktown, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Peach Orchard, Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, Glendale, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rappahannock Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Tolopotomoy, Bethesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, and Chapel House.  The Oswego battery never failed in its long term to acquit itself with bravery and fortitude.

   Three companies of the 24th Cavalry were recruited in Oswego county.  This regiment was mustered into the service in January, 1864, and went out under command of Colonel William C. Raulston.  The regiment left Auburn in February, 1864, for Washington, where they remained until March, and were then sent to the front dismounted.  The regiment was on picket duty during the battle of the Wilderness, and its loss was consequently slight.  In the battle of Cold Harbor the regiment supported the 14th Heavy Artillery and suffered severely.  Thirty men of Co. E were taken prisoners and sent to Andersonville, where most of them died.  After this battle the regiment crossed the James River and marched to Petersburg.  On the 17th of June the grand charge on the enemy’s lines was led by this regiment, and the command lost heavily.  A similar charge was made on the following day with like results.  Captain Burch, of Co. I, was killed, and Captains Taylor and Martin wounded.  In the engagement at Peeble's Farm in September, 1864, Colonel Raulston, Captain Thomas and Lieutenant McGraw were captured and taken to Danville, Va.  In an attempt to escape soon afterward Colonel Raulston was killed.  After participating in the fighting on the Weldon Railroad the regiment received their horses at Camp Yellow House and joined the mounted troops, under the brigade commanded by Gen. Henry E. Davies, of New York.  In the spring of 1865 the regiment joined in the general advance of the army and shared in the trying duties and the glory of the final scenes of the war.  The 24th participated in the grand review at Washington, and was afterwards consolidated with the 10th Cavalry, and became known as the 1st Provisional N. Y. Cavalry.  The regiment was mustered out at Syracuse, June 19, 1865.

   The 21st Battery, known as the 21st New York Independent Battery, was raised in Oswego county and mustered into service September 2. 1862.  This battery left New York with the Banks expedition about the middle of December, and arrived at New Orleans in January, 1863.  The commissioned officers who went out with the battery were: Captain, James Barnes; first lieutenant, Henry H. Cozzens; second lieutenant, George Potts.  At New Orleans the battery was armed with four three-inch steel guns, and was stationed near that place until May.  It was actively engaged in the siege of Port Hudson and was stationed at that post for nearly a year after the place surrendered.  On the 7th of April, 1864, one gun, under charge of Lieutenant Potts, was sent to Baton Rouge, where it was attacked by the enemy and captured with seven men:  Corporals James Campbell and Charles Barnard, and privates Alonzo Dunham, Charles Dexter, Daniel Robers, jr, John Walker and Moses Potter; who were sent to Andersonville.  February 28, privates Daniel McSweeney and John S. Cozzens were captured by guerrillas and taken, to Andersonville, where Cozzens died.  Moses Potter died at his home in Hastings from the effects of his prison life.  Lieutenant Cozzens died in New York, February 18, 1864, and Lieutenant Ports was made senior lieutenant.  Near the close of 1864 the battery was ordered to New Orleans to refit for service.  During the investment of the works defending that city the battery occupied an exposed position, and John Wilson was killed on the 27th of March, and John Daly on the 29th.  After the surrender of Mobile the battery was stationed in that city, and fired a salute on the 4th of July.  The battery was mustered out at Syracuse, September 8, 1865.  Of the 212 men who went out with it, 149 returned.  Besides the deaths before mentioned, the following members of the battery died of disease in camp or hospital:
   Quartermaster-Sergeant James Munger, Artificer Jay Jewett, Bugler Aaron Van Antwerp, and Privates Orvin Bundy, Luther O. Dodge, John Dwyer, Wallace Holden, Henry Shrader, Timothy Beebe, Horace Benedict, William H. Huested, Adam Sixberry, Jacob Smith, Elmer P. Burr, William H. Mitchell, Alvin S. Miller, Matthew Thompson, George H. Millard, Daniel Mayne, George W. Betsinger, Peter Dunham, Michael Daidy, and Henry Hopkins.  John Wilson and John Daily were killed in action; and twenty-two were discharged for disability on surgeon’s certificate.

   Two companies of the 193d Regiment were recruited in Oswego County.  It was mustered into the service from April 6 to July 6, 1865, and mustered out January 18, 1866.  The captains of the Oswego companies were A. H. Preston and William L. Yeckley.  The regiment saw little active service.  Besides these, this county had men in the 15th Engineers, and in the 59th, 93d, 94th, 149th, 186th, 189th Infantry; the 2d, 3d, 4th, 14th, 16th Artillery; and in. the 7th and 20th Cavalry, while ninety-eight men enlisted in the Regular army.

   At a special meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held July 24, 1862, the County War Committee addressed the board, advising that provision be made to pay each volunteer from the county $ 50, as had been done in other counties.  In response a series of patriotic resolutions were adopted by the board, one of which authorized petitioning the Legislature for an act under which $ 55,000 might be raised by tax from which to pay $50 to each three years volunteer in the new (1l0th) regiment then being recruited.  On the 20th of August another special meeting was held to consider measures for encouraging enlistments under the call of the president of August 4, 1862, the number of recruits to be raised being about 1,330.  A resolution was adopted similar to the foregoing one in its provisions, except that the amount raised should be $ 67,400.  This sum was to be and was obtained on promissiory notes signed by the War Committee and members of the Board of Supervisors, in sums of $ 5,000 each.

   At the annual session in December, 1862, the board, through a special committee, reported a proposed bill authorizing towns to raise bounty money, which became a law in February, 1863.  Another bill was sent to the Legislature, authorizing the supervisors to issue county bonds for the moneys already raised on promissory notes.
  Following is a record of the number of men drawn in the draft of August 4, 1863, in the towns and wards of Oswego county, with the number that furnished substitutes, and the number that served:

    City -- 1st and 3d wards …310…28……6
       "   -- 2d               "      117……9……2
       "   -- 4th              "      89……16……3
    Oswego (town)………..……….73…… 6……3
    Scriba ………..………..…….…   78……4…… 3
    Hannibal ……..………..……….  74……2…… 4
    Granby ……..……….…….…...104……   ....3
    Volney ……..……….…………  164…… 5……5
    New Haven ……..……………...55…… 6……1
    Palermo ……..………..…….…..46…… 2……3
    Schroeppel ……..……………… 98…… 1……3
    Mexico ……..……….…………  103…… 2……2
    Hastings …………….…….……  94…… 1……3
    Sandy Creek …………………… 63…… 1……1
    Richland ……..………………...101…… 3……1
    Albion ……………..…….……... 50……   ……3
    Parish …………….…….…….… 54……   …… 2
    West Monroe …………….….. 36……   ……..
    Boylston and Redfield ………42……   ……3
    Orwell …….………..…….…….. 27……   ……..
    Williamstown …….………..……33……   ……1
    Amboy ……..………..…….…… 39……   ……1
    Constantia ……..……….………75…… 2……4
                                    _____    __   __
           Total                   1910     88   57

   Out of 1,910 men drawn, eighty-eight furnished substitutes, and only fifty-seven served; the remainder all either paid the commutation fee to the government, $ 300 each, or were thrown out for physical disability.  It was the last time this kind of an experiment was tried during the war.

   Further action in relation to bounties was not had until the meeting of the Board, November 30, 1863, when a resolution was offered that a petition be sent to the Legislature, asking the passage of a law authorizing the board to raise by tax moneys sufficient to pay each volunteer $ 300 under the then existing call of the president, and up to the 5th day of January, 1864, and to defray other necessary expenses connected with raising the quota.

   This resolution was laid over until December 3, when it was withdrawn, and in its stead were adopted a series of resolutions, which, in brief, established a bounty of $ 300 to each volunteer "under the impending draft of the 300,000 men" called for by the proclamation of the president; authorized the county treasurer to borrow on the county’s credit the necessary sum to meet this demand, not to exceed $ 270,000; and that a committee, consisting of Avery W. Severance, John H. Woodin, Elias Root, A. P. Grant, Daniel L. Couch, and B. B. Burt, be appointed to act with the treasurer in carrying out these arrangements.  The quota to be raised at this time was 974 men; and on the 26th of January, 1864, the board in special session adopted a resolution that the following lists should be considered as the quota of the several towns and wards under the call of October 17, 1863; and the various sums opposite; the amount each town and ward must raise:

1   1st and 3d wards 
$ 42,900
2   2d ward 
3   4th ward 
4   Oswego town
5   Scriba
6   Hannibal
7   Granby
8   Volney
9   New Haven
10   Palermo
11   Schroeppel 
12   Mexico
13   Hastings
14   Sandy Creek
15   Richland
16   Albion
17   Parish
18   West Monroe 
19   Boytston and Redfield 
20   Orwell
21   Williamstown 
22   Amboy
23   Constantia 
$ 292,200
   At a special meeting held February 11, 1864, at the city clerk's office, the Common Council of the city acted upon a resolution to provide for raising upon the credit of the city, for the sole use of the city, money for the payment of bounties and other incidental expenses, to the amount of $ 60,000, to be paid by an annual tax of $ 3,000 and interest.  This was temporarily laid on the table.

   At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, February 12, 1864, resolutions were adopted providing for the payment of a bounty of $ 300 to each volunteer credited on the call of February 1, 1864, the sum not to exceed $ 195,000, and the number of volunteers not to exceed 650.  Recruiting progressed until in the latter part of March, when a special session of the board was held March 30, at which a resolution was adopted providing that $ 60,000 be levied and appropriated to paying $ 300 to “each volunteer to be enlisted to fill the quotas of the several towns and wards in the county that are now deficient under all calls of the president to this date."

   Again in July, 1864, after the call of the 18th for 500,000 volunteers, the Board of Supervisors took prompt action for filling the quota.  A special session was held on the 27th of July, at which a resolution was adopted providing for levying and collecting $ 330,000, to be made payable in twelve equal annual installments, beginning in March, 1868, and continuing the bounty of $ 300, at the same time offering a premium of $ 15 for each volunteer secured.

   On the 13th of August, 1864, the Common Council acted upon the matter of filling the quota of the city, separately from the county, by the adoption of a resolution similar to that presented in the preceding February, providing for raising $ 52,500 for bounties to volunteers credited to the city.  Meanwhile town bounties had been provided for, so that the volunteers of the period under consideration received $ 600.
   A tabulation of the quotas made under this call shows that, after deducting the surplus, there were required 1,219 volunteers in the county, 206 of which number were wanted in the city.

   A special session of the board was held August 29, at which a committee reported the amount of the war debt as then existing, provided bounties were paid as then provided for sufficient volunteers to fill the quotas, to be $1,430,685.  An effort was made at this meeting to add $ 300 to the bounty, but a resolution was finally adopted, recommending that the towns and wards of the county pay either by town or private bounty, "a sum sufficient to raise vohmteers to fill their quotas."

   On September 9, Co.D of the 19th Veteran Corps arrived in Oswego to superintend the threatened draft, the quota in some of the towns in Madison county, which was then in this Congressional District, not yet being filled.  A telegram reached the city from Gen. A. S. Diven, of Elmira, to begin the draft on the 19th of September, which was done, amid a good deal of excitement and anxiety.

   A statement was received from the provost marshal on the 3d of December, 1864, showing a deficit of volunteers in the county of eighty-five.  No part of this deficit was in the city, the towns of Mexico (21), Williamstown (13), and Amboy (29), lacking the larger part of the number.  In pursuance of resolutions adopted at special town meetings, there was a motion made and passed at a meeting of December 14, 1864, that certain sums be levied upon the various towns for bounties.  This action cleared up the war matters to the last call of December 19, for 300,000 men.  While the news from the South had been very encouraging to the North during the fall of 1864, there were many who still believed the end of the rebellion was far away; and this last call nearly deprived them of all hope.  Hundreds of volunteers had been paid in the neighborhood of $ 1,000 each, and the money had been raised for that purpose only by the most persistent and untiring efforts.  It was, therefore, thought almost impossible to further impoverish the county.  The city, however, attacked the problem promptly.  The Common Council met on the 27th of December, and authorized a loan of $105,000, payable in one, two, and three years, and the payment of $ 600 to each volunteer.  A special election was held January 6, to vote upon the question of paying this amount, and 775 votes were cast in favor, and only 75 against it.  About the same time the supervisors met and resolved to $ 500 for one year volunteers; $ 600 to two years, and $ 700 to three years men; these sums were afterwards changed to $ 300, $ 500 and $ 700 respectively.  The towns held meetings and made requests to the supervisors to levy the various sums necessary for bounty purposes, and enlistments proceeded.  Major D.Farling and A. B. Getty were appointed recruiting agents for the First and Third wards, and Capt. C. H. Lewis and D. C. Buel for the Second and Fourth wards of the city.  January 24 a recommendation was sent to Governor Fenton to the effect that Captain Lewis was a proper person to raise a new regiment in the district.  The quota in the district was 1,522 and in this county 1,142.  This was reduced a little later by 25 percent, leaving it 857.  War meetings were held frequently and the War Committee held daily sessions.  While the credit of the county was still good, it was found almost impossible to obtain currency with which to pay the volunteers.  The city quota was filled much more rapidly than in the towns, and when the city had a surplus, which it did, some of the towns had not a single credit. The draft to fill the deficiencies began on the 27th of February, when the following figures from the provost marshal's office showed the numbers to be drawn in the county:  Constantia, 49; Williamstown, 21; Orwell, 12; Redfield, 9; Boylston, 9; West Monroe, 15; Parish, 25; Albion, 25; Richland, 39; Sandy Creek, 25; Hastings, 21; Mexico, 47; Schroeppel, 37; Palermo, 23; New Haven, 17; Volney, 60; Granby, 57; Hannibal, 36; Scriba, 19.

   The draft passed off quietly, but before the men drawn could reach the scenes of the war, the great rebellion was in its dying throes, and few of the drafted men saw much, if any, actual service.

   Following is a statement of moneys raised and expended for war purposes by the county from April 15, 1861, to December 6, 1865:
                    For bounties………………………$ 1,884,300.00
                    For expenses………………………      51,414.66
                                                        ----------------   $ 1,935,714.66
                    For interest on county loans………………………         144,864.08
                    For principal of county loans……………………..         140,400.00
                    For discount on State bonds………………………            8,990.46
                    Total………………………………………………                $ 2,229,969.20

   The various towns of the county, in pursuance of an act passed February 21, 1863, contributed from first to last the following sums for bounties to volunteers:

$ 11,340.91
Sandy Creek
West Munroe


1.  Johnson’s History, p. 90

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Copyright © October 3,  2004 Sheila Lofft Strickland, Transcriber 
    Copyright © October 11,  2004Laura Perkins 
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