Lodges, Grange, Pulaski Academy, The Press, 
Biography of Thomas W. Dixon, 
Pulaski, Oswego Co., N. Y.

Information was obtained from the History of Oswego County, N. Y., 1789 – 1877, published by
Everett & Ferriss, 1878.  Many thanks and appreciation to Julie Robst for contributing this history on the Town of Richland. Julie has contributed a number of photographs, newspaper articles and histories for both, Richland and Mexico. 


Fellowship Lodge, No. 288. -  The petition for a warrant to hold a lodge in the town of Richland, county of Oneida, to be called “Fellowship lodge,” is dated March 28, A.D. 1816, and signed as follows: Elias Howe, James Weed, James A. Thompson, Asahel Baker, Ebenezer Young, Reuben Peek, Luther Howe, Julius Whitmore, George Harding,
John Yerington, Newton Marsh, Joseph Hurd, Benjamin Covey, Jr., Nathan W. Noyes.
     The petition was recommended by Rising Sun lodge, No. 228, Washington lodge,
No. 256, and R. W. Grand Visitor, Joseph Enos, and was granted December 4, A.D. 1816.
    Fellowship lodge, No. 288, was first convened September 10, A.D. 1817. Its charter
bore date June 5, A.D. 1817, with the names of Elias Howe, James Weed, and James A.
Thompson inserted therein as W. M., S. and J. W.’s in the order named.
    Jeremiah A. Mathewson was the first Mason made, and it was at his house the
lodge held its first communication. During its existence the lodge held one hundred and
ninety-five communications, with an average attendance of forty-nine. 
It had nine different W. M.’s, viz., 

Elias Howe, elected September 10,  A.D. 1817, December 19, 1817; 
Chester Hayden, December 9, 1818, December 13, 1820; John Davis, December 1, 1819; Luther Howe, December 5, 1821, December 25, 1822; 
Peter Hinman, December 17, 1823; 
Thomas C. Baker, December 1, 1824, December 21, 1825, December 13, 1826;
Abner French, November 28, 1827, December 17, 1828, December 9, 1829; 
Oliver L. Ramsdell, December 29, 1830, December 14, 1831, December 5, 1832, December 25, 1830, December 14, 1831, December 5, 1832, December 25, 1833, December 10, 1834;
Joseph Avery, December 2, 1835. The last-mentioned W. M. failed to become qualified to preside over a lodge for more than thirty years after his election. Returning to Pulaski to visit his friends, P. W.’s D. A. Kins, W. K. Combs, F. S. Low, Benj. Snow, and John M. Watson, of Pulaski lodge, No. 415, conferred the necessary qualifications, when this pioneer of Masonry returned to his western home content.
The lodge had thirteen S. W.’s, viz.,
James Weed, elected September 10, A.D. 1817; 
James A. Thompson, December 19, 1817
John Davis, December 9, 1818; 
Luther Howe, December 1, 1819, December 29, 1830; 
Peter Hinman, December 13, 1820, December 5, 1821, December 25, 1822; 
T. C. Baker, December 17, 1828; 
Wm. Hale, December 9, 1829; 
Joseph Avery, December 14, 1831, December 5, 1832, December 25, 1833, December 10, 1834; 
Asa L. Dickinson, December 2, 1835.
Sixteen J. W.’s respectively occupied the South, viz.,
James A. Thompson, elected September 10, A.D. 1817; 
H. T. Harmon, December 19, 1817; 
Luther Howe, December 9, 1818; 
Peter Hinman, December 1, 1819; 
Asahel Baker, December 30, 1820; 
Anson Maltby, December 17, 1823; 
John Reynolds, December 21, 1824; 
Augustus Fellows, December 7, 1825; 
Justus Fox, December 13, 1826; 
Ralph French, November 28, 1827;
Wm. Hale, December 17, 1828; 
Oliver L. Ramsdell, December 9, 1829; 
A. French, December 29, 1830, December 14, 1831; 
Pliny Jones, December 10, 1834; 
Oliver L. Ramsdell, December 2, 1835.
Ten Treasurers were custodians of the lodge funds, viz., 
Asahel Baker, elected September 10, A.D. 1817, December 5, 1821, December 25, 1822, December 19, 1817, December 1, 1824; 
J. A. Mathewson, December 19, 1817, December 9, 1818, December 1, 1819; 
Simon Meacham, December 13, 1820; 
Pliny Jones, December 7, 1825, December 13, 1826; 
Wm. Hale, November 28, 1827; 
Isaac Fellows, December 17, 1828;
Joseph Avery, December 9, 1829; 
John J. Kellogg, December 29, 1830, December 14, 1831; 
A. French, December 5, 1832, December 25, 1833, December 10, 1834; 
Ralph French, December 2, 1835.
 Eleven Secretaries recorded the lodge’s proceedings, viz.,
H. White, elected September 10, A.D. 1817; 
E. Young, December 19, 1817; 
Smith Dunlap, December 9, 1818, December 10, 1819, December 13, 1820; 
T. C. Baker, December 5, 1821, December 25, 1822; 
J. A. Davis, December 17, 1823; 
Anson Maltby, December 1, 1824;
Wm. Hale, December 7, 1825, December 13, 1826; 
Hiram Hubbell, November 28, 1827;
A. C. Dickinson, December 17, 1828; 
Henry Gillespie, December 9, 1829, December 29, 1830, December 14, 1831, December 5, 1832, December 25, 1833, December 10, 1834;
Abner French, December 2, 1835.
    The lodge held its communications at the house of J. A. Mathewson from September 10, A.D. 1817, to January 22, A.D. 1818. It was then moved to the house of E. Young, “and met till” May 16, 1821. At its last communication held at this place, Brother Young’s account for room rent, candles, and rations was rendered. January 2, 1822, the lodge was located at the house of S. Harmon. December 27, 1824, it was removed to the residence of Anson Maltby. February 2, 1826, the lodge removed to Masonic hall, located in the second story of the then called brick school-house, which was situated on the grounds now occupied by the Congregational church.
    The lodge at different periods celebrated the anniversary of the St. John’s. May 21, A.D. 1823, a resolution was adopted “to celebrate the next St. John’s and that there be a
committee of five to make such arrangements as shall be advised, and to give notice of the celebration in the Oswego papers. That Brothers O. Hayden and Oliver Ayer, preachers of the gospel, be requested to deliver an address on said 24th. That Brethern James A. Davis, T. C. Baker, John Wood, S. Dunlap be a committee for the above-set-forth business.”
     So far as is known, but three members of the lodge are living, T. C. Baker, A. French, and Joseph Avery.
    Its charter and one book of minutes are all that is preserved of Fellowship lodge, No. 288. They are in possession of Pulaski lodge, No. 415. Just one entry from the book, indicating the character of the noble men composing the lodge, may be quoted:
 “July 23, A.D. 1828. Lodge opened, and after some friendly conversation mutually given and received, the lodge closed in good harmony.”
       “Hiram Hubbell, Secretary.”

Pulaski Chapter, No. 104. - The charter under which Pulaski chapter, No. 104, was
instituted bears date February 3, A.D. 1825. Worthy Companion Rev. Joshua Bradley was
appointed H. Priest, Allan Andrews, King; Smith Dunlap, Scribe, of a chapter of Royal
Arch Masons, to be by virtue of said charter formed, constituted, and holden at the village
of Pulaski, Oswego County.
    At ten o’clock A.M., December 20, A.D. 1825, agreeable to previous arrangements,
the brethren and companions of the chapter assembled at Masonic hall, and proceeded to
elect the following officers, viz., 

Rev. Joshua Bradley, M. E. H. P.; 
Allen Andrews, M. E. K.; 
Smith Dunlap, M. E. S.; 
Jeremiah Fields, C. H.; 
Joshua Robinson, R. A. C.; 
John Bollin, P. S.; 
Henry Weed, M. of 3rd V.; 
Isaac Kinney, M. of 2nd V.; 
Alexander M. Kent, M. of 1st V.; 
John Wood, Tres.’ 
T. C. Baker, Sec’y; 
John Gratton, Tyler. 
    The chapter then adjourned to the court-house, when the officers elect were duly installed by G. H. P., Ezra Crozier, and D. H. P., S. Jones. After the installation services were concluded, the Rev. G. Chaplain delivered an appropriate address. A procession was then formed, which “moved” to the house of S. Harmon for dinner. After dinner, at half-past four o’clock P.M., returned to the hall.
  At this meeting the following names were “proposed for the four degrees,” viz.:
Brothers E. Young, 
A. Dudley, 
James Weed, 
Augustus Fellows, 
Isaac Fellows, 
John C. Pride, 
John Bollin, 
C. Hayden, 
Wm. Hale, 
Justus Fox, 
O. L. Ramsdell, and 
Jabez Meacham.
December 12, A.D. 1826
A. Andrews was elected M. E. H. P.; 
T. C. Baker, M. E. K.; 
O. L. Ramsdell, Scribe; 
Justus Fox, C. H.; 
Luther Howe, P. S.; 
Peter Hinman,  R. A. C.; 
Augustus Fellows, M. of 3rd V.; 
Abner French, M. of 2nd V.; 
Benjamin Gibbs, M. of 1st. V.; 
Wm. Hale, Sec’y.; 
John Wood, Tres.; 
E. McMellen, Tyler,  December 25, A.D. 1827, 
T. C. Baker was elected M. E. H. P.; 
Isaac Fellows, M. E. K.; 
Allen Andrews, Scribe; 
Luther Howe, C. H.; 
O. L. Ramsdell, P. S.; 
Justus Fox, R. A. C.; 
Abner French, M. of 3rd V.; 
Benjamin Gibbs, M. of 2d V.; 
Ralph French, M. of 1st V.; 
Pliny Jones, Tres.; 
Wm. Hale, Sec’y; 
J. W. Helme, C.  December 24, A.D. 1828, Henry Weed was elected M. E. H. P.; Allen Andrews, M. E. K.; Justus Fox, Scribe; Isaac Fellows, C. H.; O. L. Ramsdell, P. S.; Augustus Fellows, R. A. C.; Abner French, M. of 3d V.; Benjamin Gibbs, M. of 2d V.; R. F. North, M. of 1st. V.; Pliny Jones, Treas.; Wm. Hale, Sec’y.; Rev. P. Goodwin, Chap.
      The regular communications of the chapter were held on Tuesday, at three o’clock
P.M., on or next preceding the first full moon in the months of December, March, Jun, and
September. It held during its existence twenty-seven communications, and advanced
fifty-one M. M.’s to the degrees of M. M., P. M., M. E. M., and R. A. M. It ceased to
meet March 24, A.D. 1829.
       January 10, A.D. 1826, the secretary, Judge Wm. Hale, recorded the fact that
“one-half dollar was received and expended for refreshment.” The charter and the minutes are in the possession of Pulaski lodge, No. 415.


Pulaski Lodge, No. 415. -  The dispensation under which this lodge was instituted
bears date August 11, A.D. 1856. The following names were inserted therein, viz.: W. K.
Combs, F. L. Williams, A. H. Weed, Isaac Fellows, Abner French, Augustus Day, M.
Russell, S. B. Ingham, A. Towsley, and Norman Root. The first three were M. and W.’s
in the order named.
 At its first communication N. Root was elected Treasurer, and A. Day, Secretary.
D. A. King, F. S. Low, and J. A. Clark were the first applicants for membership. The
lodge charter was granted June 10, A.D.  1857, with the names of Warren Combs, W. M.;
Don A. King, S. W.; P. M. Borland, J. W., inserted therein; was received August 19, A.D.
1857, when the lodge was promptly convened for the installation of its officers. At this
communication James A. Clark was elected Treasurer, and Jesse W. Cross, Secretary.
The officers were duly installed by W. L. H. Conklin, of Mexico, New York.
    The lodge has three hundred and fifteen names upon its rolls. It has lost by death
twenty-two members, by dismission and removals one hundred and eight, leaving its present membership one hundred and eighty-five. September 21, A.D. 1864, all the members residing within the jurisdiction of Sandy Creek withdrew from the lodge and instituted Sandy Creek lodge, No. 564. This accounts for the large loss of membership by dismission.
     Ten different W. M.’s have presided over the lodge, viz., W. K. Combs, from its institution to December 16, A.D. 1857, elected December 16, 1863; 

P. M. Borland, December 16, 1857; 
D. A. King, December 15, 1858; December 21, 1859; 
Frank S. Low, December 19, 1860, December 18, 1861, December 17, 1862;
Benjamin Snow, December 21, 1864, December 20, 1865; 
Daniel W. Grout, December 19, 1866, December 18, 1867, December 16, 1868, died December 21, 1868; 
John T. McCarty, January 6, 1869; 
Smith E. Salisbury, December 15, 1869, December 21, 1870; 
Wilson F. Purdy, December 20, 1871, December 18, 1872, December 17, 1873, December 16, 1874, December 15, 1875; 
David C. Mahaffy, December 20, 1876. 
Twelve S. W.’s have stood in the West, viz., 
F. L. Williams, from its institution to August 19, A. D. 1857; 
Don A. King, elected August 19, 1857; 
F. S. Low, December 15, 1858, December 21, 1859;
Benjamin Snow, December 19, 1860, December 18, 1861, December 17, 1862; 
John T. McCarty, December 16, 1863; 
D. W. Grout, December 21, 1864, December 20, 1865;
Seneca D. Moore, December 19, 1866, December 18, 1867, December 21, 1870, December 20, 1871, December 18, 1872, December 17, 1873; 
S. E. Salisbury, December 16, 1868; 
T. R. Ingersoll, December 15, 1869;
H. H. Potter, December 16, 1864; 
D. C. Mahaffy, December 15, 1875; 
Lewis J. Macy, December 20, 1876.
Fifteen J. W.’s have officiated in the South, viz.,
Albert H. Weed, from its institution to August 19, A. D. 1857;
P. M. Borland, elected August 19, 1857; 
Benjamin Snow, December 15, 1858, December 21, 1859; 
Henry Twitchell, December 19, 1860, December 18, 1861, December 17, 1862;
D. W. Grout, December 16, 1863; 
S. D. Moore, December 21, 1864, December 20, 1865, December 15, 1869; 
J. Davidson, December 19, 1866; 
A. L. Williams, December 18, 1867; 
H. H. Potter, December 16, 1868; 
W. F. Purdy, December 21, 1870; 
Orla Allen, December 20, 1871; 
N. A. Alsever, December 18, 1872; 
D. C. Mahaffy, December 17, 1873, December 16, 1874; 
L. J. Macy, December 15, 1875; 
F. H. Mahaffy, December 20, 1876.
 The lodge has had five Treasures, viz.,
Norman Root, elected August 23, A. D. 1857, served to December 19, 1860; 
William H. Gray, elected December 19, 1860, served to December 21, 1870; 
Henry Twitchell, elected December 21, 1870, served to December 20, 1871; 
T. R. Ingersoll, elected December 20, 1871, annually re-elected, and is now the present Treasurer.
 Six Secretaries have recorded the proceedings of the lodge, viz.,
Augustus Day, elected August 23, A. D. 1856, served to August 19, 1857; 
Jesse W. Cross, elected August 19, 1857, served to December 15, 1858; 
Charles H. Cross, from December 15, 1858 to December 16, 1863; 
A. R. Angell, elected December 16, 1863, served to December 19, 1866; 
Benjamin Snow, elected December 19, 1866, annually re-elected, and is now the present Secretary.
 The lodge Chaplains number ten, viz.,
Jules F. Billiard, appointed December 19, A. D. 1860; 
Rev. P. B. Morrison, December 18, 1861, December 17, 1862; 
John Woodbury, December 16, 1863, December 21, 1864;
Rev. F. H. Stanton, December 20, 1865, December 19, 1866, December 18, 1867;
Rev. S. J. Decker, December 16, 1868;
Rev. R. C. Boyer, December 15, 1869, December 21, 1870; 
L R. Muzzy, December 20, 1871; 
E. H. Gaylord, December 18, 1872; 
Rev. William L. Tisdale, December 17, 1873, December 16, 1874; 
Rev. James P. Foster, December 15, 1875, December 20, 1876.
    The lodge was incorporated under chapter 317, laws of 1866, on the 6th of
January, A. D. 1874. The first board of trustees were C. H. Cross, W. K. Combs, T. R.
Ingersoll. December 16, 1874, S. D. Moore was elected in place of C. H. Cross.  December 15, 1875, W. K. Combs, and December 20, 1876, T. R. Ingersoll, were re-elected.
    Since its institution the lodge has in no case omitted to hold its regular communications on the first and third Wednesday of every month. Financially, the lodge is established on a sound basis. It freely bestows its charities upon all needy craftsmen who apply, as well as upon its own members. The widows and orphans of deceased brethren are not neglected, but assisted. The feelings of the entire community towards the lodge are of a friendly character, and the time is near, even now is, when it is regarded as an honor to be a Free and Accepted Mason, and a member of Pulaski lodge No. 415.


Of Pulaski

     Among those prominently identified with the history of Pulaski and vicinity, none are more deserving of mention in the pages of history than that of the gentleman whole name heads this biography. Thomas W. Dixon was born in Paris, Oneida county, New York, May 21, 1798. He is the son of Robert and Sarah (Wiley) Dixon, the former of whom was born in Stonington, Connecticut, December 3, 1753; the latter in the same State, July 22, 1756. His father was a farmer, and a man of unbounded energy, and an extensive agriculturist for those days. There were nine children in the family, of whom the subject of this sketch was the eighth. About 1780 he (Robert) removed to Oneida county, and was one of the pioneers of that county, there being then biy a few log houses in the now flourishing city of Utica. He died at the advanced age of eighty-seven, and was followed to the grave by his wife two years later.
     Thomas W.’s advantaged for educational acquirements were limited, he having to work on his father’s farm during the summer months, and attended the district school winters. In 1818 he married Pamelia Priest, of Litchfield, Herkimer county, and shortly afterwards he purchased fifty acres of land and commenced life for himself. By industry and economy he added to his first purchase, until he became the owner of a fine farm of two hundred acres. This union was blessed with two children, - daughters, Mary Fidelia and Pamelia Elizabeth, - both deceased. On the 17th of December, 1823, his wife died, and on the 4th of August, 1824, he married Miss Nancy Pratt, of Lyme, Connecticut, by whom he had two children, - Charlotte A. and W. Dixon, - the latter at present occupying the position of cashier of Dixon & Ingersoll’s Bank of Pulaski. 
    In 1847, Mr. Dixon removed to Pulaski, where he was interested with his brother-in-law, Colonel Meachem, the pioneer in the dairy business, and, after the death of the latter, purchased the Colonel Meachem farm, which consisted of 500 acres of land, and also 112 cows. This property he retained about eight years, and the noted Agricultural Hall, built by Colonel Meachem, was rented by Mr. Dixon as a water-cure. He then sold out, and purchased where he now resides, one mile north of the village. In 1857, he was chosen vice-president of the Pulaski bank, which position he occupied until the institution was merged into the present bank of Dixon & Ingersoll. Mr. Dixon has been quite largely engaged in manufacturing interests. He was associated with Ingersoll & Wood in the manufacture of linseed oil and flax. This firm (Dixon & Company) did business from about 1862 to 1865. He also purchased the stone flouring-mill on Salina street, which he now owns, in company with Mr. Allen.
     He now owns about 600 acres of land, nearly all in the town of Pulaski, of which he conducts the business exclusively - that of dairyman - at his advanced age. He has taken a prominent part in educational matters, and has liberally supported all enterprises touching the advancement of knowledge.
     Mr. Dixon has never had any political aspirations, his extensive business taking his entire time. He is, however, a stanch Republican, and was firmly in favor of the prosecution of the War of the Rebellion. In religion he is liberal, never having affiliated with any church, though being a regular attendant of the Congregational church, and is a generous contributor to all religious enterprises.


    The citizens of the village generally became very much interested in the education of its children and youth, and in the year 1853, through the exertions of Messrs. Charles H. Cross, Hiram Murdock, Anson R. Jones, George Gurley, Don A. King, Anson Maltby, Newton M. Wardwell, Samuel Woodruff, and William H. Lester, an act of the legislature was passed consolidating parts of three school districts lying within the village into one district, to be known thereafter as the “Pulaski school district,” empowering its board of trustees to establish and organize a classical school, to be known by the name of “the Pulaski Academy.”
     The above-named gentlemen, being the first trustees of said district, and ex-officio board of education, did as soon as practicable establish the Pulaski Academy. In the summer of 1855 it became subject to the visitation of the board of regents, in the same manner and to the same extent as though originally incorporated by them, and now enjoys all the benefits and advantages, and ranks among the best academies of the State. In April 1854, the beautiful grounds on the bank of the Salmon river, containing about one and three-quarter acres, were secured and purchased by said trustees, for the sum of five hundred dollars, then unimproved and nearly covered with a grove of chestnut, oak, and maple trees, upon which was erected the present stately structure of brick, eighty by fifty feet, three stories high, the two lower being thirteen feet high “in the clear,” and the third story being ten feet. The estimated cost of the superstructure was eight thousand dollars, but owing to prudent and economical management of the trustees and building committees, the same was completed at the actual cost of seven thousand one hundred and twenty-eight dollars and ten cents.*   (*Cost of academy, seven thousand and one hundred dollars; lot, library, and philosophical apparatus, thirteen hundred and eighty-five dollars; total, eight thousand four hundred and eighty-five dollars.)
 The following were the building committee:
George Gurley, Anson Maltby, Charles H. Cross, Don A. King, Samuel Woodruff, Anson R. Jones, D. C. Salisbury, John T. McCarty, and William H. Lester. William S. Carpenter, master-builder.

 The following sub-committees were appointed, viz.:
 Messrs. George Gurley, Samuel Woodruff, and Don A. King, to perfect and
present a proper plan for the academy. 
 Charles H. Cross, Samuel Woodruff, and William H. Lester, to prepare estimated of cost of labor and materials.
 Charles H. Cross, and Don A. King, to contract for timber, sawed lumber, sand, and stone.
 George Gurley and Don A. King, to contract for carpenter and joiner work.
 George Gurley and Anson R. Jones, to contract for lathing and plastering.
 Anson Maltby, general superintendent of laborers and erection of building.
     Early in May, 1854, the ground was first broken, and so harmoniously and
expeditiously did the work progress, that on the 8th day of January, 1855, the building
was accepted and dedicated with appropriate ceremonies (termed a celebration), with the
following order of exercises:
     1. Prayer, by Rev. Andrew Oliver; 2. Music, by the choir; 3. Remarks, by the town
superintendent; 4. Music, by the choir; 5. Address, by Hon. Henry N. Wright; 6. Singing,
dedication ode; 7. Prayer, by Rev. L. Muzzy; 8. Benediction, by Rev. R. Houghton.
     The academy consists of two departments, male and female, with the following
courses of study: academic, preparatory collage course, and commercial.

 The officers of the academy have been as follows:
 1855 and 1856 - Stephen C. Miller, principal; Miss Frances Baker, preceptress;
Homer T. Fowler, James W. Fenton, assistants.
 1857 and 1858 - Henry L. Lamb, principal; Miss Alba L. Green, preceptress;
George L. Bragdon, assistant.
 1859 - Henry L. Lamb, principal; Miss Emma N. Beebee, preceptress; Jules F. Billiard, assistant.
 1860 - R. B. Van Patten, principal; Miss E. M. Desbrow, preceptress; Jules F. Billiard, assistant.
 1861 - Pulaski E. Smith, principal; Miss Emma N. Beebee, preceptress; Harvey H.
Butterworth, assistant.
 1862 - Same principal, same preceptress, Daniel D. Owen, assistant.
 1863 - Same principal, same assistant, Misses Lizzie P. Bush and Helen M. Rice, preceptresses.
 1864 - Harvey H. Butterworth, principal; Miss Helen M. Rice, preceptress; Daniel D. Owen, assistant.
 1865 - Harvey H. Butterworth, Nehemiah White, M. R. Benton, J. W. Grant, principals; Mrs. H. H. Butterworth, preceptress; J. W. Quinby, assistant.
 1866 - Daniel D. Owen, principal; Mrs. H. H. Butterworth, preceptress; Nathan B.
Smith, assistant.
 1867 - Nathan B. Smith, principal; Miss Kate J. Brown, preceptress; J. H. Mattison, assistant.
 1868 - H. W. Congdon, principal; Miss Flora A. Potter, preceptress; E. W. Blanchard, assistant.
 1869 and 1870 - Sebastian Duffy, principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, preceptress; B. F. Miller, assistant.
 1871 - S. Duffy, principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, preceptress; W. Steele, assistant.
 1872 - S. Duffy, principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, preceptress; R. L. Keyser, assistant.
 1873 - S. Duffy, principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, preceptress; A. W. Archibald, assistant.
 1874 - and 1875 - S. Duffy, principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, preceptress; H. W. Hunt, assistant.
 1876 - S. Duffy, principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, preceptress; H. T. Hoyt, assistant.
 1877 - S. Duffy, principal; Mrs. S. Duffy, preceptress; S. C. Huntington and F. Gilman, assistants.

    The average annual expense of the institution, exclusive of repairs on buildings,
has been four thousand dollars.
    The officers of the respective boards of education from its organization to the
present time are as follows:
 Presidents - George Gurley served four years; Beman Brockway, two years;
Sidney M. Tucker, one year; Charles H. Cross, three years; James N. Betts, eight years;
George W. Woods, one year; James Douglas, four years; James W. Fenton, two years.

 Treasurers - George Gurley, served four years; James A. Clark, twenty-one years.

 Secretaries - Don A. King, served eight years; Charles H. Cross, two years;
Lorenzo Ling, eight years; Newton M. Thompson, one year; Benjamin Snow, six years.

 Trustees - George Gurley, served four years; Don A. King,, twelve years; Newton
M. Wardell, one year; James A. Clark, twenty-three years; Andrew Z. McCarty, one year;
Hiram M. Murdock, one year; Charles H. Cross, twelve years; Anson R. Jones, three
years; Stephen C. Miller, thirteen years; John T. McCarty, five years; Alonzo R. Angell,
four years; Frank S. Low, eleven years; Samuel Woodruff, four years; Adonirum Fisher,
nine years; Benjamin F. Rhodes, one year; Gilbert A. Woods, twenty years; William H.
Lester, two years; Beman Brockway, two years; Josephus C. Hatch, two years; James N.
Betts, eighteen years; Lorenzo Ling, ten years; S. C. Huntington, twelve years; N. M.
Thompson, one year; George T. Peckham, eleven years; D. O. Knowlton, four years;
Sidney M. Tucker, four years; James F. Davis, two years; James W. Fenton, seven years;
George W. Woods, nine years; R. C. Dickinson, three years; Henry H. Lyman, one year;
Sewell T. Gates, two years; James Douglas, nine years; Edwin H. Minot, two years;
Benjamin Snow, six years.

Board of Education, 1877 - James A. Clark, Gilbert A. Woods, Don A. King,
James N. Betts, S. C. Huntington, E. H. Minot, James W. Fenton, Sewell T. Gates,
Benjamin Snow.  James W. Fenton, President; James A. Clark, treasurer; Benjamin
Snow, secretary.

     The academy has not been built up by endowments, yet its history shows a marked growth. The principal and the entire faculty are ably assisted by the trustees in their labors, and no pains or expense is spared to make this institution “rank among the first in the land.”


.....was organized March 27, 1875, and the following officers were chosen: Newton M. Thompson, M.;  Olin S. Clark, A. S.;  A. N. Balsey, C.;  Clark Cole, T.;  A. J. Champney, S.;  Arthur Alexander, G. K.;  Mrs. O. S. Clark, C.;  Mrs. A. B. Trumbell, P.;  Miss Lois Clark, F.;  Mrs. C. R. Erskine, L. A. S.;  Olin S. Clark, Augustus Twitchell, N. M. Thompson, Executive Committee.


    The Pulaski Banner was established in April, 1830, by Nathan Randall, and continued by him until 1832, when it passed into the hands of A. A. Mathewson and G. G. Foster, who published it one year. It was issued by James Gedd until 1834, when it was suspended. In 1836 it reappeared as the Pulaski Advocate, and was published by Daniel Ayer until 1838, when it was sold to Mr. Dickinson and consolidated with the Port Ontario Aurora, and was issued under the name of the Advocate and Aurora. The name Aurora was then dropped in the year 1840, and the Advocate again passed into the hands of Daniel Ayer, by whom it was discontinued in 1842.
    In 1843 the Pulaski Courier was started by W. Winans, and was issued by him until 1847, when A. A. Mathewson assumed control and changed its name to the Richland Courier. In 1850 J. C. Hatch purchased the establishment, and changed the name of the sheet to the Pulaski Democrat. It was published by him until 1855, when it was purchased by Stephen C. Miller, the principal of Pulaski Academy. His ownership continued until the time of his death in November, 1869, when the paper came into the possession of L. Reade Muzzy, its present editor and proprietor. Since his purchase Mr. Muzzy has enlarged the sheet, added considerably to the office facilities by the introduction of steam and two power-presses, and removed the establishment to new and more commodious quarters. The Democrat is an ably-edited, independent journal, and justly merits its present prosperity.

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